Posts Tagged ‘paraprocts’

Test shots: “Generic Baskettail?”

February 15, 2019

larva/nymph in the Family Corduliidae (Emeralds) was collected by Bob Perkins on 02 December 2017 from a pond in Orange Park, Florida (USA). The larva died before it metamorphosed into an adult.

Test shots of this beautifully preserved specimen were taken using a small-ish aperture of f/11 for greater depth of field. The following photos are “one-offs,” that is, not composite images.

Dorsal

A single focus point — located on the thorax (specifcally, the “shoulder pad” along the right side of the body) — was used to shoot this photo. The specimen has enough “relief” that focus on the wing pads and dorsal hooks is slightly soft. This view of the larva is a good candidate for focus-stacking.

The terminal appendages (cerci, epiproct, paraprocts) are shown clearly in the following photo.

“Generic Baskettail” larva (preserved specimen) | Orange Park, FL USA

Bob’s best guess of the identity of the specimen is Epitheca sp., either Common Baskettail (Epitheca cynosura) or Prince Baskettail (Epitheca princeps).

Whenever I see an odonate larvae/exuviae with long legs, my first thought is Family Macromiidae (Cruisers). Then I check for a horn on top of the head, a key field marker for Cruisers. Look closely at the dorsal view of the larva and I think you’ll agree with me there appears to be a horn on the head. I would like to take close-up photos of the head and key out the specimen in order to determine its identity. In the meantime, my best guess is Stream Cruiser (Didmops transversa) as indicated by the lateral spines on abdominal segment nine (S9) and the absence of a dorsal hook on S10.

Ventral

The ventral side of the specimen has almost no “relief,” so a “one-off” focused on the thorax looks fairly good from head-to-tail.

“Generic Baskettail” larva (preserved specimen) | Orange Park, FL USA

Related Resource: “Generic Baskettail” (definitely not a Cruiser)

Tech Tips

The following equipment (shown below) was used to shoot the preceding photos: Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera; Fujifilm MCEX-16 extension tube; Fujinon XF80mm macro lensGodox XProF TTL Wireless Flash Trigger for Fujifilm camerasGodox TT685F Thinklite TTL Flash for Fujifilm CamerasGodox TT685C Thinklite TTL Flash for Canon Cameras fitted with a Lastolite Ezybox Speed-Lite 2 flash modifier; and a Canon 580EX II Speedlite mounted on a Godox X1R-C TTL Wireless Flash Trigger Receiver for Canon. A new Godox TT685O Thinklite TTL Flash for Olympus/Panasonic Cameras was added to an array of radio-controlled external flash units used to light the specimen. All flashes were set for Manual Mode at 1/128 power.

Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 was used to spot-heal and sharpen the final output.

Copyright © 2019 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

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More composite images: P. obscurus exuvia

February 6, 2019

The following focus-stacked composite images show dorsal- and ventral views of the exuvia from a Common Sanddragon (Progomphus obscuruslarva that was collected and reared by Bob Perkins.

Here are some personal observations after examining the specimen carefully.

The front- and middle legs block the mentum (prementum). This specimen is a good candidate for rehydrating the exuvia and reposing its legs.

Related Resource: Composite image: Progomphus obscurus exuvia.

Tech Tips

Six (6) photos were used to create the first focus stack; seven (7) photos were used for the second. A single focus point was positioned over select anatomical features, working from back-to-front; photos were taken at each point of interest.

The following equipment was used to shoot all of the photographs for the two focus-stacked composite images, shown above: Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Kenko 20mm macro automatic extension tubeCanon EF100mm f/2.8L Macro lens (set for manual focus); and Canon MT-26EX-RT Macro Twin Lite set for “Master” mode, and several external flashes set for “Slave” mode including Canon 580 EX- and Canon 580EX II Speedlites and a Godox TT685C Thinklite TTL Flash fitted with a Lastolite Ezybox Speed-Lite 2 flash modifier.

Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 was used to create the focus-stacked composite images, as well as spot-heal and sharpen the final output.

Copyright © 2019 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Macromia alleghaniensis exuvia

October 6, 2018

Michael Boatwright, founder and administrator of the Virginia Odonata Facebook group, collected an odonate exuvia on 07 June 2018 along either Little Otter Creek or Otter Creek near the place where both creeks are distributaries of Otter Lake in Amherst County, Virginia USA.

A two-step process was used to identify the genus and species of the exuvia.

  1. Determine the family.
  2. Determine the genus and species.

Step 1. Family

First, determine the family of the specimen. For reference, watch the excellent Vimeo video, Identifying dragonfly larva to family (8:06). Here’s the decision tree used to identify the exuvia as a member of the Family Macromiidae (Cruisers).

  • The specimen has a mask-like labium (prementum) that covers the face, as shown in Photo No. 1, characteristic of four families of odonates: Cordulegastridae (Spiketails); Corduliidae (Emeralds); Libellulidae (Skimmers); and Macromiidae (Cruisers).
  • The teeth on the margins of the labium have a regular pattern. (The pattern reminds me of a “spork.”)
  • Its eyes are small, wide set, and stick up.
  • Image No. 2 shows there is a horn on the face-head, characteristic of Macromiidae.

Photo No. 1 shows a face-head view of the exuvia, magnified approximately three times life size (~3x).

No. 1 | Macromia alleghaniensis | exuvia (face-head)

Image No. 2 shows the top of the head of the exuvia, magnified approximately three times life size (~3x). Notice the prominent horn on the face.

No. 2 | Macromia alleghaniensis | exuvia (head-horn)

Step 2. Genus and species

Two dichotomous keys found on p. 27 of Identification Keys to Northeastern Anisoptera Larvae, compiled by Ken Soltesz, were used to determine the genus and species of the exuvia. Markers that match this specimen are highlighted in boldface green text. Three boldface green asterisks (***) are used to highlight the thread for identification of this specimen.

Key to the Genera of the Family Macromiidae

***1b. Lateral spines of abdominal segment 9 do not reach to rearward level of tips of inferior appendages [paraprocts]; Sides of head somewhat convergent behind eyes to pair of low turbercules on hind angles; Lateral setae of labium = 6; Small dorsal hook on segment 10. [Macromia]

A small dorsal hook on abdominal segment 10 is characteristic of Genus Macromia.

No. 3 | Macromia alleghaniensis | exuvia (dorsal-lateral)

Look closely at the full-size version of Image No. 4. Notice the little “nub” on abdominal segment 10 (S10), below the underside of the dorsal hook on abdominal segment nine (S9). The same structure is labeled with a white question mark in Image No. 3.

No. 4 | Macromia alleghaniensis | exuvia (dorsal-lateral)

The lateral spines of abdominal segment 9 (S9) do not reach rearward to the tips of the inferior appendages (paraprocts).

No. 5 | Macromia alleghaniensis | exuvia (dorsal)

Key to the Species of Macromia

1a. Lateral spines of abdominal segments 8 and 9 directed straight to rearward. [illinoiensis]

***1b. Lateral spines of abdominal segments 8 and 9 incurved, especially 8. [alleghaniensis]

The lateral spines of abdominal segments 8 and 9 (S8-9) are incurved, especially segment 8 (S8), indicating this species is alleghaniensis.

No. 6 | Macromia alleghaniensis | exuvia (ventral)

This individual is probably a male, as indicated by what appear to be vestigial hamules located on the ventral side of abdominal segments two and three (S2-3).

Summary

A prominent horn on the face is a key field marker for the Family Macromiidae (Cruisers), a small dorsal hook on abdominal segment 10 is one characteristic of the Genus Macromia, and the lateral spines of abdominal segments 8 and 9 (S8-9) are incurved, indicating the species is alleghaniensis. Therefore this specimen is an Allegheny River Cruiser dragonfly (Macromia alleghaniensis).

Bonus Gallery

No. 7 | Macromia alleghaniensis | exuvia (face-head)

No. 8 | Macromia alleghaniensis | exuvia (dorsal-lateral)

No. 9 | Macromia alleghaniensis | exuvia (dorsal)

Related Resources

Tech Tips

The following equipment was used to shoot Photo/Image No. 3-9: Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Kenko 20mm macro automatic extension tubeCanon EF100mm f/2.8L Macro lens (set for manual focus); Canon MT-26EX-RT Macro Twin Lite set for “Master” mode, and Canon 580 EX- and Canon 580EX II Speedlites set for “Slave” mode. Photo/Image No. 1 and 2Canon MP-E 65mm Macro lens (manual focus only, set for ~3x magnification) plus the multiple-flash setup.

Image No. 2-8 are focus-stacked composite images created and annotated using Adobe Photoshop CC 2017: Image No. 2 (eight photos); Image No. 3 (six photos); Image No. 4 (four photos); Image No. 5 (five photos); Image No. 6 (five photos); Image No. 7 (seven photos); Image No. 8 (seven photos).

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Epitheca princeps exuvia

September 6, 2018

An odonate exuvia was collected by Michael Boatwright, founder and administrator of the Virginia Odonata Facebook group, on 07 June 2018 at Otter Lake in Amherst County, Virginia USA.

A two-step process was used to identify the genus and species of the specimen.

  1. Determine the family.
  2. Determine the genus and species.

Step 1. Family

First, determine the family of the specimen. For reference, watch the excellent Vimeo video, Identifying dragonfly larva to family (8:06). Here’s the decision tree used to identify the exuvia as a member of the Family Corduliidae (Emeralds).

  • The specimen has a mask-like labium (prementum) that covers the face, as shown in Image No. 1, characteristic of four families of odonates: Cordulegastridae (Spiketails); Corduliidae (Emeralds); Libellulidae (Skimmers); and Macromiidae (Cruisers).
  • There is no horn on the face-head, characteristic of Macromiidae, so it’s not a cruiser.
  • Cordulegastridae has jagged crenulations on its labium, so it’s not a spiketail. The crenulations for Corduliidae and Libellulidae look similar.
  • Look at the anal pyramid to differentiate Corduliidae and Libellulidae: It’s probably Corduliidae if the cerci are at least half as long as the paraprocts, as shown in Image No. 4. [Editor’s Note: It’s probably Libellulidae if the cerci are less than half the length of the paraprocts.]

In summary, the exuvia has a mask-like labium with relatively smooth crenulations, no horn on its face-head, and the cerci are more than half as long as the paraprocts, confirming that the specimen is a member of Family Corduliidae (Emeralds).

No. 1Epitheca princeps | exuvia (face-head)

Step 2. Genus and species

Characters from two dichotomous keys were used to identify the genus and species: Prince Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca princeps). See Epitheca princeps exuvia, another of my illustrated guides to identification of odonate exuviae, for a detailed explanation of the decision tree used to identify the genus and species of this specimen.

No. 2 | Epitheca princeps | exuvia (dorsal)

This individual is a male, as indicated by the vestigial hamuli visible on the ventral side of abdominal segments two and three (S2-3).

No. 3Epitheca princeps | exuvia (ventral)

Notice the cerci are at least half as long as the paraprocts, as shown in Image No. 4.

No. 4Epitheca princeps | exuvia (posterior abdomen)

Image No. 5 shows a dorsal-lateral view of the mid-dorsal hooks.

No. 5Epitheca princeps | exuvia (dorsal-lateral)

Look-alike species

I really wanted this specimen to be Stream Cruiser dragonfly (Didymops transversa). I think exuviae from D. transversa and E. princeps are similar in appearance — an opinion not shared by at least one expert on identification of odonate exuviae.

Two characters proved to be the deal-breaker that forced me to abandon D. tranversa in favor of E. princeps. 1) The specimen does not have a horn on its face-head. 2) This specimen is only 25 mm long (2.5 cm); D. transversa larvae/exuviae are 30 mm long (3.0 cm), according to Dragonflies of North America, Needham, James G., et al.

Tech Tips

The following equipment was used to shoot Image No. 1-5: Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Kenko 20mm macro automatic extension tubeCanon EF100mm f/2.8L Macro lens (set for manual focus); Canon MT-26EX-RT Macro Twin Lite set for “Master” mode, and Canon 580 EX- and Canon 580EX II Speedlites set for “Slave” mode.

Image No. 1-5 are focus-stacked composite images created and annotated using Adobe Photoshop CC 2017: Image No. 1 (7 photos); Image No. 2 (22 photos); Image No. 3 (19 photos); Image No. 4 (10 photos); Image No. 5 (20 photos).

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Post update: Phanogomphus lividus exuvia

April 13, 2018

Phanogomphus lividus exuvia, my identification guide for Ashy Clubtail exuviae, was updated to feature two new annotated high-magnification macro composite images.

  • Photo No. 1: The specimen was rehydrated/relaxed in order to reposition the front legs for an unobstructed view of the prementum, especially the median lobe of the labium.
  • Photo No. 2: A close-up view of the anal pyramid (terminal appendages) verified the “superior caudal appendage (epiproct) is as long as inferiors (paraprocts).”

The first image is a composite of six photos that shows a ventral view of the prementum.

Editor’s Note: Sincere thanks to Sue and John Gregoire for guiding me to the location of the median lobe.

The last image is a composite of 15 photos that shows a dorsal view of the abdomen; the inset image is a selection from a composite of 10 photos that shows a ventral view of the anal pyramid.

No. 2 | Ashy Clubtail (Phanogomphus lividus) | exuvia (anal pyramid)

The Backstory

An Ashy Clubtail dragonfly (Phanogomphus lividusnymph was collected by Bob Perkins. (The date and location where the specimen was collected are unknown.) The nymph was reared in captivity until it emerged on 21 March 2017 and metamorphosed into an adult female. This specimen is the exuvia from the nymph. P. lividus is a member of the Family Gomphidae (Clubtails).

Tech Tips

The following equipment was used to shoot all of the photos for the preceding composite images: Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Canon MP-E 65mm Macro lens (manual focus only, set for f/8 at either 2x or ~3x magnification); Canon MT-26EX-RT Macro Twin Lite set for “Master” mode; and Canon 580 EX- and Canon 580EX II Speedlites in “Slave” mode.

Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 was used to create the composite image by “round-tripping” with Apple Aperture.

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Phanogomphus lividus exuvia

April 5, 2018

The Backstory

An Ashy Clubtail dragonfly (Phanogomphus lividusnymph was collected by Bob Perkins. (The date and location where the specimen was collected are unknown.) The nymph was reared in captivity until it emerged on 21 March 2017 and metamorphosed into an adult female. This specimen is the exuvia from the nymph. P. lividus is a member of the Family Gomphidae (Clubtails).

A two-step process was used to verify the identity of the exuvia.

  1. Determine the family.
  2. Determine the genus and species.

Step 1. Family

First, determine the family of the specimen. For reference, watch the excellent Vimeo video Identifying dragonfly larva to family (8:06). Here’s the decision tree used to identify the exuvia as a member of the Family Gomphidae (Clubtails).

  • The specimen has a flat labium that doesn’t cover the face (not mask-like), as shown in Photo No. 1 and 3.
  • Antennae are club-like (not thin and thread-like, as in  Aeshnidae larvae), as shown in Photo No. 1.

It’s simple and straightforward to recognize this specimen is a clubtail.

No. 1 | Ashy Clubtail (Phanogomphus lividus) | exuvia (face-head)

Step 2. Genus and species

Lateral spines are present on abdominal segments six through nine (S6-S9).

The superior caudal appendage (epiproct) is as long as inferiors (paraprocts), as shown in Photo No. 4. The view of the terminal appendages is still slightly obscured by debris after the specimen was cleaned, making it challenging to distinguish the cerci from the paraprocts. Nonetheless, the epiproct and paraprocts appear to be nearly the same length.

The median lobe of the labium (prementum) is straight-edged, as shown in Photo No. 5.

After emergence

The next photograph shows the Ashy Clubtail dragonfly after emergence from one of Bob Perkins‘ holding tanks. Phanogomphus lividus is 48-56 mm in total length (Paulson, 2011).

Image used with permission from Bob Perkins.

This individual is a female, as indicated by its rounded hind wings and terminal appendages.

Image used with permission from Bob Perkins.

Related Resource

The dichotomous key for Gomphus (now Phanogomphus) that appears on p. 20 in Identification Keys to Northeastern Anisoptera Larvae, compiled by Ken Soltesz, was used to attempt to verify the genus and species of the exuvia. Markers that match this specimen are highlighted in boldface green text. Three boldface green asterisks (***) are used to highlight the thread for identification of P. lividus. Disclaimers are highlighted in boldface red text.

1a. Lateral spines on abdominal segments 7 to 9 (very minute if present on 6). [2]
***1b. Lateral spines on abdominal segments 6 to 9 well developed. [3]

3a. Superior caudal appendage (epiproct) shorter than inferiors (paraprocts); Teeth on lateral lobes of labium obsolete or poorly developed. [quadricolor]
***3b. Superior caudal appendage (epiproct) as long as inferiors (paraprocts); Teeth on lateral lobes of labium well developed. [4]

***4a. Median lobe of labium straight-edged. [lividus]
4b. Median lobe of labium convex-edged. [5]


Note: The weakest aspect of this key is couplet 4, as it applies to Gomphus descriptus [Harpoon Clubtail], the difference in the “convexity” of the median lobe between lividus and descriptus being very slight and difficult to discern in practice. Donnelly (pers. comm.) has found that, at least with New York specimens, the posterior narrowing of the median lobe of the labium is more abrupt in livid, and relatively gradual in descriptus. Also, the labial teeth are better developed in livid than in descriptus. These characters are so relative that any unknown suspected of being either of these species should be compared to reference specimens.

Tech Tips

The following equipment was used to shoot Photo No. 2 and 3: Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Kenko 20mm macro automatic extension tubeCanon EF100mm f/2.8L Macro lens (set for manual focus); Canon MT-26EX-RT Macro Twin Lite set for “Master” mode, and Canon 580 EX- and Canon 580EX II Speedlites set for “Slave” mode. Photo No. 1, 4, and 5Canon MP-E 65mm Macro lens (manual focus only, set for either 2x or 3x magnification) plus the multiple-flash setup.

Photo No. 1-3 are focus-stacked composite images created and annotated using Adobe Photoshop CC 2017.

Bob Perkins’ photos were shot using a Canon EOS Rebel T3i camera body and Canon EF-S 60mm macro lens.

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Boyeria vinosa exuvia

March 8, 2018

Bob Perkins collected and reared an unknown species of odonate nymph from a stream located in southwestern Virginia. The larva emerged from one of Bob’s holding tanks on 08 May 2017 and metamorphosed into an adult female Fawn Darner dragonfly (Boyeria vinosa). Fawn Darner is a member of the Family Aeshnidae (Darners).

A two-step process was used to verify the genus and species of the exuvia.

  1. Determine the family.
  2. Determine the genus and species.

Step 1. Family

First, determine the family of the specimen. For reference, watch the excellent Vimeo video Identifying dragonfly larva to family (8:06). Here’s the decision tree used to identify the exuvia as a member of the Family Aeshnidae (Darners).

  • The specimen has a flat labium that doesn’t cover the face (not mask-like), as shown in Photo No. 1, 3, and 4.
  • Antennae are thin and thread-like (not club-like, as in Gomphidae larvae), as shown in Photo No. 1-4.
  • Eyes are large relative to the size of the head, as shown in Photo No. 1.

No. 1 | Boyeria vinosa | exuvia (face-head)

Step 2. Genus and species

The dichotomous key for Boyeria larvae that appears on p. 22 in Identification Keys to Northeastern Anisoptera Larvae, compiled by Ken Soltesz, was used to verify the genus and species of the exuvia.

1. Length when grown 37-39 mm;
Lateral spines on abdominal segments 4 to 9 (minute on 4);
Mentum of labium more than twice as long as its median width;
Inferior caudal appendages (paraprocts) stouter, scarcely incurved at tips;
Apex of superior anal appendage (epiproct) uncleft and sharply pointed;
Epiproct as long as paraprocts. [grafiana]

1’. Length when grown 34-37 mm;
Lateral spines on abdominal segments 5 to 9;
Mentum of labium less than twice as long as its median width;
Inferior caudal appendages (paraprocts) more slender, distinctly incurved at tips;
Apex of superior anal appendage (epiproct) deeply emarginate (cleft);
Epiproct distinctly shorter than paraprocts. [vinosa]

The exuvia is ~35 mm (~3.5 cm) long. Lateral spines are present on abdominal segments five to nine (S5 to S9).

No. 2 | Boyeria vinosa | exuvia (dorsal)

The rudimentary ovipositor shown in Photo No. 3 indicates this individual is a female.

No. 3 | Boyeria vinosa | exuvia (ventral)

The prementum is less than twice as long as its median width, as shown in Photo No. 4.

No. 4 | Boyeria vinosa | exuvia (prementum)

The paraprocts are incurved at the tips.

No. 5 | Boyeria vinosa | exuvia (anal pyramid)

There is a cleft in the apex of the epiproct. The cleft is closed in the exuvia (above); it is open in the nymph (below). Both photos show the same specimen, before and after emergence.

Image used with permission from Bob Perkins.

Both the Soltesz dichotomous key and the key for Boyeria larvae that appears on pp. 88-89 in Dragonflies of North America, Third Edition by Needham et al. describe the epiproct as “distinctly shorter than paraprocts.” The epiproct and paraprocts are nearly the same length. In the opinion of the author, this marker is least useful for differentiating grafiana and vinosa nymphs/evuviae.

This specimen is confirmed as an exuvia from a Fawn Darner dragonfly (Boyeria vinosa).

Adult

The adult Fawn Darner dragonfly emerged on 08 May 2017. Fawn Darners are, on average, 60-71 mm long (Paulson, 2011).

Image used with permission from Bob Perkins.

This individual is a female, as indicated by its rounded hind wings (above) and prominent ovipositor (below).

Image used with permission from Bob Perkins.

Tech Tips

The following equipment was used to shoot Photo No. 2 and 3: Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Kenko 20mm macro automatic extension tubeCanon EF100mm f/2.8L Macro lens (set for manual focus); and Canon MT-26EX-RT Macro Twin LitePhoto No. 1, 4, and 5: Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Canon MP-E 65mm Macro lens (manual focus only, set for 2x – 3x magnification); and Canon MT-26EX-RT Macro Twin Lite.

Sunpak LED-160 Video Light (with a white translucent plastic filter) was used for all photos.

Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 was used to annotate selected images.

Bob Perkins’ photos were shot using a Canon EOS Rebel T3i camera body and Canon EF-S 60mm macro lens. The photos of the adult were taken soon after emergence.

Related Resource

The dichotomous key for Boyeria larvae that appears on pp. 88-89 in Dragonflies of North America, Third Edition by Needham et al. is as follows.

1. Epiproct about as long as paraprocts, its apex acute, not emarginate; greatest width of prementum about 3/5 its length; paraprocts shorter than abdominal segments 9+10, each with apex nearly straight (Fig. 85). [grafiana]

1’. Epiproct distinctly shorter than paraprocts, its apex distinctly emarginate; greatest width of prementum about 2/3 its length; paraprocts longer than abdominal segments 9+10, each with apex distinctly incurved (Fig. 85). [vinosa]

Post Update

Thanks to Northeast Odonata Facebook group members Curt Oien and Nick Block for sharing the following helpful tips. Both Curt and Nick are also members of the Dragonfly Society of the Americas.

The face-head of an Aeshnidae nymph/exuvia is relatively easy to recognize. Would I have said that when I was a beginner? In a word, no. Watch the Vimeo video a few times and you’ll see what I’m saying.

So, after you determine a specimen is from the Family Aeshnidae, look for a prominent light-colored diamond shape on the dorsal side of abdominal segment eight (S8), as shown in Photo No. 2 and 5: if it’s there, then you can be fairly certain the genus is Boyeria.

Curt looks for the cleft in the epiproct to determine the species. I recommend looking at other markers that are easier to see.

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Erpetogomphus designatus exuvia

February 28, 2018

Michael Powell collected several odonate exuviae during a photowalk along the Potomac River in Fairfax County, Virginia USA, including two damselflies and two dragonflies. The exact date is uncertain, although Mike thinks the exuviae were collected sometime between 19-23 July 2017.

A two-step process was used to identify the genus and species of one of the two dragonfly exuviae.

  1. Determine the family.
  2. Determine the genus and species.

Step 1. Family

First, determine the family of the specimen. For reference, watch the excellent Vimeo video, Identifying dragonfly larva to family (8:06). Here’s the decision tree used to identify the exuvia as a member of the Family Gomphidae (Clubtails).

  • The specimen has a flat labium that doesn’t cover the face (not mask-like). [See Photo No. 4.]
  • Antennae are club-like (not thin and thread-like, as in Aeshnidae). [See Photo No. 1.]
  • Eyes not exceptionally large compared to the size of the head (not large, as in Aeshnidae). [See Photo No. 1.]
(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Step 2. Genus and species

The dichotomous key for Erpetogomphus larvae that appears on pp. 156-157 in Dragonflies of North America, Third Edition by Needham et al. was used to identify the genus and species of the exuvia. The first couplet [1, 1′] is as follows.

1. Dorsal hooks well-developed on abdominal segments 2-9 (Fig. 183a) [2]
1’. Dorsal hooks absent or vestigial on abdominal segments 7-9 (Fig. 183c) (usually present on at least some of the more anterior segments [3]

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

A leap of faith is required to see the small dorsal hooks present on abdominal segments two through nine (S2 – S9), but they are there.

Notice the divergent wing pads. The white filaments that extend from the split in the thorax (as shown above) are breathing tubes, artifacts of the unique respiratory system of dragonfly nymphs.

2(1). Lateral spines present on abdominal segments 6-9 only; femora with long, hair-like setae [designatus] [Eastern Ringtail]
2’. Lateral spines present on abdominal segments 5-9 only; femora without long, hair-like setae [constrictor] [Knob-tipped Ringtail]

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

The caudal appendages (terminal appendages) are all about the same length, a key marker for designatus.

Notice the flat labium that doesn’t cover the face, as shown in the following photo.

This specimen is tentatively identified as an exuvia from an Eastern Ringtail dragonfly (Erpetogomphus designatus). The exuvia that Mike Powell collected is similar in appearance to the following excellent photograph of an Erpetogomphus designatus nymph by Steve Krotzer, Haysop Hill Photography.

Image used with permission from Steve Krotzer.

Tech Tips

The following equipment was used to shoot Photo No. 2 and 4: Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Kenko 20mm macro automatic extension tubeCanon EF100mm f/2.8L Macro lens (set for manual focus); and Canon MT-26EX-RT Macro Twin LitePhoto No. 1 and 3: Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Canon MP-E 65mm Macro lens (manual focus only, set for 2x magnification); and Canon MT-26EX-RT Macro Twin Lite. A Sunpak LED-160 Video Light (with a white translucent plastic filter) was used for some photos.

Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 was used to annotate selected images.

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Epitheca cynosura exuvia

April 26, 2017

On 13 April 2017, a late-stage emergent teneral female Common Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca cynosura) was observed at Painted Turtle Pond during a photowalk around Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Prince William County, Virginia USA.

Several dragonfly exuviae were collected near the same location as the emergent teneral female. All of the exuviae look identical, although there is some variation in size. A two-step process was used to verify the genus and species for one of the larger exuvia.

  • Determine the family.
  • Determine the genus and species.

This specimen is approximately 22 mm (~0.87 in) in length.

Step 1. Family

First, determine the family of the specimen. For reference, watch the excellent Vimeo video, Identifying dragonfly larva to family (8:06). Here’s the decision tree used to identify the exuvia as a member of the Family Corduliidae (Emeralds).

  • The specimen has a mask-like labium that covers the face, characteristic of four families: Cordulegastridae (Spiketails); Corduliidae (Emeralds); Libellulidae (Skimmers); and Macromiidae (Cruisers).
  • There is no horn on top of the face-head, characteristic of Macromiidae, so it’s not a cruiser.
  • Cordulegastridae has jagged crenulations on its labium, so it’s not a spiketail. The crenulations for Corduliidae and Libellulidae look similar.
  • Look at the anal pyramid to differentiate Corduliidae and Libellulidae [See Photo No. 7.]: It’s probably Corduliidae if the cerci are at least half as long as the paraprocts. [Editor’s Note: It’s probably Libellulidae if the cerci are less than half the length of the paraprocts.]

In summary, the exuvia has a mask-like labium with relatively smooth crenulations, no horn on its face-head, and the cerci are more than half as long as the paraprocts, confirming that the specimen is a member of Family Corduliidae (Emeralds).

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Notice that dorsal hooks are present and well developed on most abdominal segments.

No. 4 | Common Baskettail (Epitheca cynosura) | exuvia (dorso-lateral)

A lateral view of the exuvia provides a good look at the labium, also known as the mentum, a two-segment hinged “jaw” that is used to grab food: the prementum is the segment of the labium closer to the mouth; the postmentum is the segment closer to the base of the head.

The white filaments that extend from the split in the thorax (as shown in Photo No. 1-7) are breathing tubes, artifacts of the unique respiratory system of dragonfly nymphs.

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

A closer view of the head shows two “bumps” that may be a pair of tubercles.

Step 2. Genus and species

Characters from Identification Keys to Northeastern Anisoptera Larvae, dichotomous keys compiled by Ken Soltesz, were used to identify the genus and species for the exuvia. Although palpal/mental setae were not examined, all other characters match Epitheca cynosura.

dichotomous key: a key for the identification of organisms based on a series of choices between alternative characters. Source Credit: Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Alternate Key to the Genera of the Family Corduliidae, p. 29.

Key to the species of the genus (subgenus) Tetragoneuria, p. 32.

No. 7 | Common Baskettail (Epitheca cynosura) | exuvia (anal pyramid)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

The last photo shows a ventral view of the exuvia. The vestigial hamuli located between abdominal segments two and three (S2-3) strongly suggests this individual is a male, therefore this specimen probably is not the same exuvia from which the teneral female emerged.

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Related Resources

Editor’s Note: Sincere thanks to Sue Gregoire, Kestrel Haven Migration Observatory, for verifying my tentative identification, and for sharing some good odonate nymph knowledge regarding vestigial hamuli!

Tech Tips

The following equipment was used to shoot all of the preceding photographs: Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Canon EF100mm f/2.8L Macro lens (set for manual focus) plus a Kenko 20mm macro automatic extension tube; Canon 580EX II external flash tethered to the camera by a coiled six-foot Vello Off-Camera TTL Flash Cord for Canon Cameras, off-camera, in manual mode; the Canon flash optically triggered a small Nissin i40 external flash (in SF mode) used for backlight; and a Sunpak LED-160 Video Light with a white translucent plastic filter used for side light.

Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 was used to annotate selected images.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Epitheca princeps exuvia

March 5, 2017

The following Prince Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca princeps) exuvia, on temporary loan from a friend, had been identified before I borrowed the specimen. A two-step process was used to verify the genus and species of the exuvia.

  1. Determine the family.
  2. Determine the genus and species.

Step 1. Family

First, determine the family of the specimen. For reference, watch the excellent Vimeo video, Identifying dragonfly larva to family (8:06). Here’s the decision tree used to identify the exuvia as a member of the Family Corduliidae (Emeralds).

  • The specimen has a mask-like labium that covers the face, characteristic of four families: Cordulegastridae (Spiketails); Corduliidae (Emeralds); Libellulidae (Skimmers); and Macromiidae (Cruisers).
  • There is no horn on top of the face-head, characteristic of Macromiidae, so it’s not a cruiser.
  • Cordulegastridae has jagged crenulations on its labium, so it’s not a spiketail. The crenulations for Corduliidae and Libellulidae look similar.
  • Look at the anal pyramid to differentiate Corduliidae and Libellulidae [See Photo No. 4.]: It’s probably Corduliidae if the cerci are at least half as long as the paraprocts. [Editor’s Note: It’s probably Libellulidae if the cerci are less than half the length of the paraprocts.]

In summary, the exuvia has a mask-like labium with relatively smooth crenulations, no horn on its face-head, and the cerci are more than half as long as the paraprocts, confirming that the specimen is a member of Family Corduliidae (Emeralds).

A Prince Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca princeps) exuvia collected from an unknown location. This specimen is on temporary loan from Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 1 | Prince Baskettail (Epitheca princeps) | exuvia (face-head)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Step 2. Genus and species

Characters from two dichotomous keys were used to identify the genus and species for the exuvia. Although palpal/mental setae were not examined, all other characters match Epitheca princeps.

dichotomous key: a key for the identification of organisms based on a series of choices between alternative characters. Source Credit: Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Dichotomous Key 1

Identification Keys to Northeastern Anisoptera Larvae, compiled by Ken Soltesz.

Key to the Families of Anisoptera, page 5.

Key to the Genera of the Family Corduliidae, page 28.

Dichotomous Key 2

Corduliidae Selys – EmeraldsOdonata Nymphs of Michigan, by Ethan Bright and Mark F. O’Brien, UMMZ-Insect Division.

Epitheca Burmeister, 1839 (Corduliidae) – Baskettails

  • 1a. Distal half of dorsal surface of prementum heavily setose; palpal setae usually 4, rarely 5(Fig. 2) – Subgenus Epicordulia, E. princeps

More annotated images

A Prince Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca princeps) exuvia collected from an unknown location. This specimen is on temporary loan from Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 2 | Prince Baskettail (Epitheca princeps) | exuvia (dorsal)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Mid-dorsal hooks present, well-developed on some abdominal segments.”

A Prince Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca princeps) exuvia collected from an unknown location. This specimen is on temporary loan from Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 3 | Prince Baskettail (Epitheca princeps) | exuvia (dorso-lateral)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

“With lateral spines on Ab8 [S8].” “Lateral spines on Ab9 [S9] at least 2.0x as long as those on Ab8 [S8], at least equal to mid-dorsal length of Ab9 [S9].” The cerci are at least half as long as the paraprocts.

A Prince Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca princeps) exuvia collected from an unknown location. This specimen is on temporary loan from Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 4 | Prince Baskettail (Epitheca princeps) | exuvia (anal pyramid)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Photo No. 5 shows a wider view of the ventral side of the specimen.

A Prince Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca princeps) exuvia collected from an unknown location. This specimen is on temporary loan from Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 5 | Prince Baskettail (Epitheca princeps) | exuvia (ventral)

Photo No. 6 shows a zoomed-in view of the prementum.

A Prince Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca princeps) exuvia collected from an unknown location. This specimen is on temporary loan from Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 6 | Prince Baskettail (Epitheca princeps) | exuvia (prementum)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Photo No. 7 shows another view of the prementum.

A Prince Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca princeps) exuvia collected from an unknown location. This specimen is on temporary loan from Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 7 | Prince Baskettail (Epitheca princeps) | exuvia (prementum)

Related Resources

Tech Tips

The following equipment was used to shoot all of the preceding photographs: Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Canon EF100mm f/2.8L Macro lens (set for manual focus) plus a Kenko 20mm macro automatic extension tube and a Raynox DCR-250 close-up filter; Canon 580EX II external flash, off-camera, in manual mode; Canon 580EX external flash, off-camera, in manual mode; and a Yongnuo YN-622C-TX E-TTL II Wireless Flash Controller for Canon plus a two-pack of Yongnuo YN-622C II E-TTL Wireless Flash Transceivers for Canon.

A Canon Extender EF 1.4x II was used for more magnification in Photo No. 4, 6, 7 and 9. Adding the tele-extender results in a 1 f/stop loss of light; additional backlight was added to the scene using a Nissin i40 external flash unit (off-camera, in SF mode).

Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 was used to annotate selected images.

Photo No. 8 and 9 show early work to get a good shot of the face-head, before Photo No. 1 emerged as the clear winner. I prefer Photo No. 1 because it provides the best view of the face-head, has the best composition and exposure, plus I like the way the exuvia seems to be floating in mid-air.

A Prince Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca princeps) exuvia collected from an unknown location. This specimen is on temporary loan from Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 8 | Prince Baskettail (Epitheca princeps) | exuvia (face-head)

A Prince Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca princeps) exuvia collected from an unknown location. This specimen is on temporary loan from Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 9 | Prince Baskettail (Epitheca princeps) | exuvia (face-head)

Although I have never seen a perching adult Prince Baskettail dragonfly, I was fortunate to shoot the following photo of a male in flight, featured in the blog post Changing of the guard.

A Prince Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca princeps) spotted at Mulligan Pond, Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male, shown in flight.

No. 10 | 14 JUN 2016 | JMAWR | Prince Baskettail (male, in flight)

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.


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