Posts Tagged ‘teneral’

Acceptable uncertainty

July 27, 2020

A teneral damselfly was spotted by Michael Powell during a photowalk with me along a mid-size stream in Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

teneral: adult after it has just emerged, soft and not definitively colored. Source Credit: Glossary [of] Some Dragonfly Terms, by Dennis Paulson.

Teneral odonates, especially females, can be challenging at best to identify with certainty. And so it is with this one.

The first photo is the record shot. (Get a shot, any shot.) I think I might have just missed focus on the face.

No. 1 | 15 JUL 2020 | Fairfax County, VA | teneral damselfly

Refine the shot.

No. 2 | 15 JUL 2020 | Fairfax County, VA | teneral damselfly

Although this individual is definitely a member of Family Coenagrionidae (Narrow-winged Damselflies), both the genus/species and gender are somewhat uncertain.

It appears to be an Argia sp. based on long tibial spines. I think it is a male. Source Credit: Mike Boatwright, founder and administrator of the Virginia Odonata Facebook group.

For what it’s worth, Mike Powell and I saw three species of damselflies during our outing: Blue-tipped Dancer (Argia tibialis); Dusky Dancer (Argia translata); and Powdered Dancer (Argia moesta).

I’m not sure of the gender. I see what might be hamules, indicating this individual is male, but also see what looks like a female stylus (plural: styli) near the tip of the abdomen, indicating this might be a female.

Bonus Bugs and More

Look closely at Photo No. 1, the “record shot.” Notice the small orange colored insect perched along the bottom of the same rock on which the damselfly is perched. Can anyone identify Bonus Bug No. 1?

Post Update: “The fly at the [bottom] of this photo may be a black fly (Simuliidae).” Source Credit: John Smith, member “BugGuide” Facebook group.

Now look at Photo No. 2. Notice there is some type of dark insect that’s perched along the same edge of the rock as the damselfly. Can anyone identify Bonus Bug No. 2?

Post Update: “The bug at the bottom of your photo appears to be a caddisfly.” Source Credit: John Smith, member “BugGuide” Facebook group.

Also notice the dark insect is perched near what might be the exuvia from which the damselfly emerged, as shown in Photo No. 2. It’s tannish in coloration.

I didn’t see either the bonus bugs or possible exuvia when we were in the field. Of course!

Related Resource: Newly emerged damselflies, a companion blog post by Michael Powell.

Copyright © 2020 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Are adult Autumn Meadowhawks arboreal?

October 25, 2019

Autumn Meadowhawk (Sympetrum vicinum) is classified as a fall species of odonate. In the mid-Atlantic United States, meadowhawks seem to disappear for several months after they emerge during early to mid-summer and reappear during fall. Where do they go? No one knows for sure. I speculate Autumn Meadowhawk is an arboreal species of dragonfly that returns to the ground/water when it’s time to mate.

Emergence

The first individual — photographed soon after emergence — is a/an teneral/immature male, as indicated by the tenuous appearance of his wings, coloration, and terminal appendages.

24 JUN 2016 | HMP | Autumn Meadowhawk (teneral/immature male)

The next individual is a/an teneral/immature female, as indicated by the tenuous appearance of her wings, coloration, and terminal appendages.

24 JUN 2016 | HMP | Autumn Meadowhawk (teneral/immature female)

Time to mate

Fall is the time to mate for mature adult Autumn Meadowhawk dragonflies (S. vicinum), as you can see in the following photo.

15 NOV 2013 | HMP | Autumn Meadowhawk (mating pair, “in wheel”)

This mating pair is “in wheel”: the male is on the upper-left; the female is on the lower-right. All dragonflies and damselflies have a 10-segmented abdomen, numbered from front to back: male dragonfly secondary genitalia, called hamules, are located in segments two and three (S2 and S3); female genitalia in segment eight (S8). Dragonflies form the mating wheel in order for their genitalia to connect during copulation.

Forest Canopy Walk at Vermont Institute of Natural Science

Observing dragonflies at the Earth’s surface is fairly easy; observing dragonflies at the treetops, not so much. The new Forest Canopy Walk at the Vermont Institute of Natural Science (VINS) should facilitate the latter.

During 2020, I hope to collaborate with Kelly Stettner, Black River Action Team (BRAT), and Anna Morris, Lead Environmental Educator, VINS, to gather evidence that supports my speculation that adult meadowhawk dragonflies are arboreal. Field observations will be collected on the ground and along the Forest Canopy Walk.

Hosted by Anna Morris, Kelly Stettner and her family scouted the VINS site on 05 October 2019, including the new Forest Canopy Walk and nearby water bodies that provide suitable habitat for Autumn Meadowhawk. Special thanks to Anna for providing a behind the scenes tour a week before the official opening of the Forest Canopy Walk.

Gallery photos used with permission from Kelly Stettner, BRAT.

A week later, Autumn Meadowhawk was observed along the Forest Canopy Walk for the first time. The following photos provide circumstantial evidence that we might be on the right track. I love it when a plan comes together!

Gallery photos used with permission from Anna Morris, VINS.

I’m happy to share that during our public Forest Canopy Walk opening today [12 October 2019], I was stationed at the Eagle platform and got to see two (2) meadowhawks zooming around, then perched on the railing (pictures attached)! This is about 60 feet up, near a Sugar Maple and a Red Oak. [More meadowhawks were seen] the next day at nearly 90 feet up! At this height and as it was so sunny there were at least four individuals zooming around, landing on visitors, etc. Source Credit: Anna Morris, Lead Environmental Educator, VINS.

Related Resources

Copyright © 2019 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Seamless transition

May 27, 2018

A seamless transition from the spring species of odonates to the summer species is slowly but surely underway.

Spangled Skimmer (Libellula cyanea) is a summer species that starts to appear in Northern Virginia in late spring. The following individual — spotted at Hidden Pond during a photowalk at Meadowood Recreation Area (MRA), Fairfax County, Virginia USA — is a teneral female, as indicated by her tenuous wings and terminal appendages.

21 MAY 2018 | MRA | Spangled Skimmer (teneral female)

Female Spangled Skimmers have a pair of flanges beneath their eighth abdominal segment that are used to scoop and hold a few drops of water when laying eggs (oviposition), hence the family name “Skimmer.” Remember that all dragonflies and damselflies have a 10-segmented abdomen, numbered from front to back.

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Blue Corporal (teneral males)

May 3, 2018

Several teneral male Blue Corporal dragonflies (Ladona deplanata) were spotted near Painted Turtle Pond during a photowalk at Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Prince William County, Virginia USA.

Teneral/immature/young male Blue Corporals look similar to females of the same species. Terminal appendages can be used to differentiate gender: males have three (3) appendages; females have two (2).

Some of the ground cover is charred from a recent controlled burn at Occoquan Bay NWR.

The common name for Blue Corporal is derived from two cream-colored stripes that appear on the front of the thorax, similar to the two stripes that signify the rank of corporal in the military. As a mature male, those stripes will be partially obscured by dark blue pruinescence.

Related Resource: Blue Corporal (teneral females).

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Blue Corporal (teneral females)

May 1, 2018

Lots of Blue Corporal dragonflies (Ladona deplanata) were spotted near Painted Turtle Pond at Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Prince William County, Virginia USA. This is the first time the author has observed Blue Corporal at Painted Turtle Pond.

Both individuals featured in this post are teneral females, as indicated by their tenuous wings and terminal appendages.

Female 1

The first female was spotted perching on vegetation near the shoreline of Painted Turtle Pond. Some of the ground cover is charred from a recent controlled burn at Occoquan Bay NWR.

The common name for Blue Corporal is derived from two cream-colored stripes that appear on the front of the thorax, similar to the two stripes that signify the rank of corporal in the military.

Notice the abdomen of this female seems to be bent slightly to the right (facing forward). This malformation probably occurred during emergence.

Female 2

The last female was spotted perching on the gravel road leading to Painted Turtle Pond. The purple rock located in the upper-right corner of the photo might contain the mineral fluorite.

Like many teneral dragonflies, if not most, this individual was quite skittish. I followed the female to two locations before calling the photowalk a wrap.

Related Resource: Blue Corporal (teneral males).

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Common Baskettail (teneral female)

April 29, 2018

A Common Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca cynosura) was spotted near Painted Turtle Pond during a photowalk at Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Prince William County, Virginia USA.

This individual is a teneral female, as indicated by her tenuous wings and relatively short, straight terminal appendages.

Spring 2018 has been slow to spring in the mid-Atlantic USA, as evidenced by the fact that the first Common Baskettails were spotted at Painted Turtle Pond beginning in mid-April 2017.

Related Resources

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

New discoveries in 2017 (odonates)

December 28, 2017

There’s always more to discover/learn! My odonate-related new discoveries in 2017 are presented in reverse-chronological order.

Fine-lined Emerald dragonfly

A Fine-lined Emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora filosa) was spotted at Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Prince William County, Virginia USA. This individual is one of several males spotted during a period of a week-or-so in mid-September 2017.

Immature male Calico Pennant

20 JUN 2017 | OBNWR | Calico Pennant (immature male)

A Calico Pennant dragonfly (Celithemis elisa) was spotted at Painted Turtle Pond, Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Prince William County, Virginia USA. This individual is an immature male. Notice its coloration is similar to female Calico Pennants.

Allegheny River Cruiser dragonfly

An Allegheny River Cruiser (Macromia alleghaniensis) was netted by Mike Blust at Hardware River Wildlife Management Area, Fluvanna County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male.

Harpoon Clubtail dragonfly

09 JUN 2017 | Highland County, VA | Harpoon Clubtail (male)

A Harpoon Clubtail dragonfly (Phanogomphus descriptus) was spotted at “Straight Fork,” Highland County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male. Sincere thanks to fellow Virginians Karen Kearney and Mike Boatwright for guiding me to this unique high-elevation habitat.

It’s worth noting that I saw two more new species during the same trip: Riffle Snaketail (Ophiogomphus carolus); and Dot-tailed Whiteface (Leucorrhinia intacta).

Those who know me well are familiar with one of many “Walterisms”: “I haven’t ‘seen’ something until I have photographed it.” My rationale is two-fold: 1) A photograph verifies a sighting. 2) The detail visible in a good photograph exceeds the acuity of the human eye. Suffice it to say I saw two other species but haven’t seen them. Makes sense to me!

Swift River Cruiser dragonfly

A Swift River Cruiser dragonfly (Macromia illinoiensis) was spotted at Riverbend Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is an emergent/teneral female.

Spine-crowned Clubtail dragonfly

A Spine-crowned Clubtail dragonfly (Hylogomphus abbreviatus) spotted along Bull Run at Hemlock Overlook Regional Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male. A female was spotted on the same day at a nearby location.

Epitheca cynosura exuvia

A Common Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca cynosura) exuvia was collected at Painted Turtle Pond, Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Prince William County, Virginia USA.

Epitheca princeps exuvia

05 MAR 2017 | Prince Baskettail (Epitheca princeps) | exuvia (face-head)

A Prince Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca princeps) exuvia was collected from an unknown location. This specimen was on temporary loan from Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

The ugly side of Mother Nature

October 1, 2017

A Big Bluet damselfly (Enallagma durum) was spotted during a photowalk along Deephole Point Road at Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Prince William County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male, eating a teneral damselfly.

10 SEP 2017 | Occoquan Bay NWR | Big Bluet (male, eating prey)

I think they may both be Big Bluets. Source Credit: Michael Moore, Virginia Odonata Facebook group.

Some species of odonates are cannibals, that is, they feed on their own species. And there it is — the ugly side of Mother Nature!

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Pop quiz answer key

June 9, 2017

Perhaps the simplest way to provide answers to the recent pop quiz — in which readers were challenged to identify the gender of two Southern Spreadwing damselflies (Lestes australis) — is to show what the teneral/immature male (shown in my last post) will look like when he’s a little older.

The following photos show Southern Spreadwings spotted at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. Both individuals are male, as indicated by their terminal appendages and blue coloration.

Both photographs of the male Southern Spreadwings were taken at an angle that shows their terminal appendages clearly.

All male damselflies have four terminal appendages, collectively called “claspers.” Male damselfly terminal appendages don’t look exactly the same for all species of damselflies, but their function is identical. Claspers are used to grab and hold female damselflies during mating: an upper pair of cerci (“superior appendages”) and a lower pair of paraprocts (“inferior appendages”).

In contrast, female damselflies have two cerci (sing. cercus), superior appendages that have little or no function. Notice the two “nubs” at the tip of the abdomen, as shown in the photo of the female Southern Spreadwing that was featured in the pop quiz.

Editor’s Notes: There are four families of damselflies (Suborder Zygoptera) in the United States of America, although only three families occur in the mid-Atlantic region: Family Calopterygidae (Broad-winged Damselflies)Family Coenagrionidae (Narrow-winged Damselflies); and Family Lestidae (Spreadwings).

Male Broad-winged Damselflies and Spreadwing Damselflies have terminal appendages that are large enough to see with the unaided eye. Generally speaking, both male and female Narrow-winged Damselflies are too small to see their terminal appendages clearly in most photographs.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Pop quiz

June 7, 2017

OK, it’s time to assess what you’ve learned about damselflies by following my blog.

Two Southern Spreadwing damselflies (Lestes australis) were photographed on the same day at the same location. Both damselflies are teneral/immature, that is, they are relatively young. One is a female; one is a male. Can you identify the gender of the damselflies shown in the following photos?

I’ll give you a hint: Examine their terminal appendages by looking at the full-size version of both photos.

No. 1

No. 2

Editor’s Note: The answer key will be published in my next post.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.


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