Archive for the ‘product reviews’ Category

Godox TT685C Thinklite TTL Flash

November 12, 2018

I bought a Godox TT685C Thinklite TTL Flash from Roberts Camera recently. I placed the order around midday on Friday, 02 November 2018 and the parcel was delivered on Monday, 05 November. Impressive!

The Backstory

Godox flash photography gear, published on 09 October 2019, features my initial review of a Godox TT685F Thinklite TTL Flash that I bought from B&H Photo. In short, the flash doesn’t work as advertised by both Godox and B&H Photo, and B&H has failed repeatedly to “make it right.” (More about that in a follow-up blog post.)

Given my negative experience with the TT685F flash, regular readers of my blog might be wondering “Why would you buy another Godox flash from B&H Photo?” More about the first part of that question in a minute. As I already mentioned, I DIDN’T buy the new Godox TT685C flash from B&H Photo. Read between the lines.

Testing 1, 2, 3…

I have been testing the new TT685C flash since the day after it was received. Here’s what I know so far: In a nutshell, the flash works as advertised.

The Canon-compatible version of the Godox TT685 functions in five modes: a non-wireless, stand-alone mode (TTL, Manual, and Multi); and four wireless modes (optical master/slave modes, and radio master/slave modes). The Godox TT685C can do almost everything the comparable Canon Speedlite 600EX II-RT does at a price point approximately six times less than Canon’s MSRP of $579.99.

All of that being said, there is one problem with the Godox TT685C and it’s a big problem in my opinion. More about this in a follow-up blog post.

A Canon-compatible flash that works like one made for Fujifilm

For my money, what makes the Godox TT685 product line of flashes special is they are cross-compatible. In other words, flashes made for different camera manufacturers (e.g., Canon, Nikon, Olympus/Panasonic, and Sony) can work together.

The following photo shows the LCD of my new Godox TT685C flash. The flash is set for radio slave mode (Channel 1, Group A). Notice the word “FUJI” in the lower-left corner of the display that indicates the Canon-compatible flash is working like a Fujifilm-compatible flash.

In this case, the flash was controlled by a Godox XProF radio flash trigger mounted on the hotshoe of my Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera. A Godox TT685F external flash, fitted with a Lastolite Ezybox Speed-Lite 2 flash modifier, was located off-camera; the TT685F was used to light the photo, shown below. Also notice the icon that indicates the flash is functioning in HSS mode; the HSS icon is located below 24mm (manual zoom) and the audio speaker icon (indicating sound is on).

Godox TT685C external flash LCD panel display (Slave mode).

Results from hands-on testing (so far, so good)

  • Off-camera radio slave mode works, including TTL and HSS, when the Godox TT685C is controlled by a Canon MT-26EX-RT Macro Twin Lite set for radio master.
  • Either Godox XProF or TT685F mounted on Fujifilm X-T1 hotshoe: Camera-mounted flash is Channel M; off-camera TT-685C (set for radio slave) is Channel A. Works as expected, including TTL and HSS.
  • Godox TT685C mounted on Fujifilm X-T1 hotshoe: Flash fires, Manual mode only (TTL, HSS don’t work); when the flash is set for optical master (in Manual mode), it can trigger an off-camera Nissan i40 external flash unit (set for SF Mode) confirming that optical master does in fact work.

Related Resources

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.


Peak Design Anchor Links

October 26, 2018

A set of Peak Design Anchor Links was used to connect a Godox PROPAC PB960 Lithium-Ion Flash Power Pack to the strap that shipped with the battery. The power pack fits better in one of the larger pockets on a safari vest without the strap.

I can never remember how to thread photo gear straps safely and securely, so I loosened the strap on one side of the battery to see how it was done.

Parts, before assembly.

The next photo shows one of the Anchor Links connected to the battery, and one of the Anchors connected to the end of the strap.

Anchor Link component parts connected to battery and strap.

The last photo shows the Anchor Link, well, anchored to the Anchor.

Anchor Link component parts connected.

Added flexibility using Anchor Links

The strap for the Godox battery pack can be repurposed as a replacement for the strap on my Panasonic Lumix superzoom bridge camera; the old strap is frayed at the point where it’s connected to the camera and is cause for concern.

Each set of Anchor Links ships with four (4) Anchor Links and two (2) Anchors, so I connected the other two Anchor Links (not shown in the preceding photos) to my Panasonic camera. Now it’s quick and easy to use one strap for two pieces of photo gear!

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Consistency and attention to detail

October 14, 2018

Fujifilm doesn’t make/sell any radio-controlled flash triggers and external flash units, so I was excited when I learned that Godox had released Fujifilm-compatible flash photography gear that fills the void. Better, the retail price-point for the Godox gear is quite attractive — about one-fifth the price of comparable Canon external flash equipment.

Buyer beware: You get what you pay for. In the case of the Godox flash gear for Fujifilm, it seems like you’re paying for a work-in-progress rather than a finished, market-ready product.

Fujifilm X-T1

The first two images show two screen captures from the flash-related “Shooting Menu” for the Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera.

Flash-related Shooting Menu for Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera.

Notice camera is set for TTL and high-speed sync is enabled (FP).

Flash-related Shooting Menu for Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera.

Godox TT685F

The following graphic is an outtake from the Instruction Manual for the Godox TT685F external flash unit. The annotated image shows the LCD panel on the front of the flash.

Godox TT685F Thinklite TTL Camera Flash | Instruction Manual

When the Godox TT685F is mounted on the hot shoe of a Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera, the LCD panel looks similar to the annotated image in the instruction manual. Notice the icon that indicates the flash will fire using high-speed sync.

Godox TT685F external flash LCD panel display.

The next graphic is an outtake from the Instruction Manual for the Godox TT685F external flash unit. The annotated image shows the LCD panel on the front of the flash when the flash is set for either Master or Slave mode.

Godox TT685F Thinklite TTL Camera Flash | Instruction Manual

Finally, here’s the LCD panel display for the TT685F in Slave mode. Conspicuously missing is any indication the flash is set for high-speed sync.

Godox TT685F external flash LCD panel display (Slave mode).

Godox XProF

The following image shows the LCD panel for the Godox XProF radio flash trigger. Notice the display is somewhat similar to the TT685F display when set for Master mode.

Godox XProF radio flash trigger LCD panel display.

The next image shows the LCD panel for the XProF radio flash trigger, showing only a single channel and group. Neither view provides any indication the flash will fire using high-speed sync.

Godox XProF radio flash trigger LCD panel display.

Inconsistency seems to be a problem with Godox

It appears there is some inconsistency across the product line of TT685 flashes made for different camera manufacturers (Canon, Nikon, Olympus/Panasonic, and Sony). For example, some models of the TT685, such as the TT685C for Canon cameras, feature both optical and radio master/slave modes; the TT685F for Fujifilm cameras is radio only.

There is also inconsistency and inattention to detail across the LCD panel displays for the XPro controllers for different camera manufacturers. For example, notice that “SYNC” is one of the four function buttons on the XProC (press the button and the flash goes into HSS mode); the “SYNC” button is missing from the XProF, as shown above.

Godox TT685C Thinklite TTL Camera Flash | Instruction Manual

Most, if not all of these issues should be easy to fix by updating the firmware; hopefully updates are in the pipeline already.

And speaking of firmware updates, the firmware for Godox flash photography products can be updated using Windows-compatible PCs only. Really, you’re kidding me, right? Seriously Godox, many if not most “creatives” — including photographers — prefer Apple computers. It’s time to make firmware updates available for either Apple Mac OS or Microsoft Windows!

Post Update: It works, except when it doesn’t.

Further experimentation showed that the XProF LCD display can show the icon that indicates the flash will fire using high-speed sync, as shown below. Here’s how I was able to make it work, albeit temporarily.

  1. Power-on the XProF.
  2. Power-on the X-T1.
  3. Press the “Menu/OK” button and navigate to the “Shooting Menu,” specifically the “Flash Function Setting.” (Both menus are shown at the beginning of this post.) Cycle through the three options in the sub-menu under “Sync” (1st Curtain, 2nd Curtain, FP); select FP. Press the “OK” button.

As far as I can tell, the Sync mode must be set every time you power-on the flash gear and camera, including after the X-T1 goes into power-saving sleep mode. If you don’t, then HSS works but the HSS icon isn’t displayed on the XProF LCD panel.

It’s noteworthy that the HSS icon is never displayed on the TT685F LCD panel when the flash is in Slave mode — more evidence of inattention to detail.

Godox XProF radio flash trigger LCD panel display.

Godox XProF radio flash trigger LCD panel display.

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Burst mode flash photography

October 12, 2018

This post provides a brief demonstration of burst mode flash photography using the gear shown in the following photo: Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera plus Fujifilm MCEX-11 extension tube and Fujinon XF80mm macro lensGodox XProF radio flash triggerGodox TT685F external flashGodox PROPAC PB960 Lithium-Ion Flash Power Pack; and Quantum Instruments CZ2 Power Cable (for Turbo Series Power Packs).

Godox flash photography gear.

The Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera is set for “CL” (continuous low) burst mode. The Godox TT685F external flash unit is set for Manual mode at 1/128 power, as shown on the LCD of the Godox XProF radio flash trigger mounted on the camera hot shoe. The external flash unit is connected to a Godox PROPAC PB960 power pack using a Quantum Instruments cable.

The external flash unit is powered by a set of four AA batteries, as usual. The external power pack enables a much faster recycle rate for the flash than is possible using only AA batteries.

The Quantum Instruments CZ2 Power Cable fits Canon external flash units such as the Canon MT-26EX-RT Macro Twin Lite and Canon 580EX- and Canon 580EX II Speedlites, as well as Godox external flash units made for Canon, Fujifilm, and Olympus/Panasonic digital cameras. You may want to buy two cables, since the Godox PROPAC PB860 can power two flash units at once.

Related Resources

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Godox flash photography gear

October 9, 2018

The photos in this gallery show the following photography gear: Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera plus Fujifilm MCEX-11 extension tube and Fujinon XF80mm macro lens; Godox XProF radio flash trigger; Godox TT685F external flash, Godox PROPAC PB960 Lithium-Ion Flash Power Pack; and Quantum Instruments CZ2 Power Cable (for Turbo Series Power Packs).

Godox flash photography gear.

The Godox TT685F flash head is the same size as a Canon 580EX II Speedlite so slide-on plastic light modifiers that work with a 580EX II will work with the TT685. That said, some work better than others. The “Sto-Fen Omni-Bounce OM-EY” is a tight fit — too tight in my opinion. The “Vello Bounce Dome (Diffuser) for Canon 580EX II Flash” is a perfect fit.

The Godox radio flash trigger and external flash unit are compatible with both TTL and HSS (high-speed sync flash).

Godox flash photography gear.

The Godox TT685F external flash can function as either a radio master or radio slave. According to the B&H Photo Web page for the TT685F, current as of 01 November 2018, the flash can also function as either an optical master or optical slave.

Much to my surprise, the TT685F cannot function as either an optical master or optical slave. I had hoped to be able to use the TT685F as an optical master to remotely trigger other Fujifilm-compatible external flash units such as my Nissin i40 or Fujifilm EF-X500. This is a BIG disappointment, especially since the TT685C for Canon Cameras features both optical master/slave and radio master/slave modes. Although both the TT685F and TT685C sell at the same retail price point of ~$110, you’re paying for less-capable hardware in the TT685F and that’s just not right! Hey Godox, are you listening?

The Godox PROPAC PB960 Lithium-Ion Flash Power Pack can be used with the TT685F to enable burst mode flash photography. A follow-up blog post will feature a short video clip showing that burst mode flash works quite well.

Editor’s Notes

I contacted B&H Photo on 10 October 2018 via an online chat with a customer service representative named “Dan W.” Dan admitted the B&H Photo Web page for the Godox TT685F is (or was) incorrect. The following quote is an excerpt from the transcript of my chat with Dan W.

“Optical master/slave transmission is available for working with other standard flashes.”

I asked “How do we make this right? I don’t want to return the TT685F but I’d be happy to settle for a discount on another Godox flash.” After talking with a manager, B&H offered to give me a $5.00 discount on another flash unit. B&H misrepresented the product I bought in good faith and their best offer to make it right is $5? Please, get serious.

I have always raved about B&H Photo and its extraordinary customer service. Whenever there has been a problem with an order, it was always resolved quickly in my favor. B&H’s latest offer of a $5.00 discount is an insult and NO WAY TO BUILD CUSTOMER LOYALTY!


As it turns out, the Godox Web page for the TT685F, current as of 12 October 2018, says the flash can also function as either an optical master or optical slave.

It’s noteworthy that the graphic of the flash LCD shows the icon for radio master/slave mode. Hey Godox, does anyone fact-check your Web pages before they are published? This is false advertising!

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Studio macro photography rig

September 12, 2018

This blog post features a couple of quick-and-dirty photos that provide a behind-the-scenes look at some of the photography gear I use for studio macro photography.

The following equipment is shown in the first photo, taken using an iPad mini (with retina display): Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Kenko 20mm macro automatic extension tubeCanon EF100mm f/2.8L Macro lens (set for manual focus); Canon MT-26EX-RT Macro Twin Lite set for “Master” mode, and Canon 580 EX- and Canon 580EX II Speedlites set for “Slave” mode.

The Canon DSLR is mounted on a Neewer Pro 4-Way Macro Focusing Rail Slider using a Manfrotto quick-release plate. Although the quick-release plate isn’t essential gear, it makes set-up and tear-down easy and fast. The focusing rails are mounted on a Manfrotto 405 Pro Digital Geared Head, connected to a Manfrotto 055XPROB Pro Tripod [discontinued].

Photography gear used for studio macro photography.

A Canon 580EX II Speedlite is mounted on a Manfrotto 054 Magnesium Ball Head with Q2 Quick Release [discontinued], connected to a Vanguard Alta Pro 263AB 100 Aluminum Alloy Tripod. A Canon 580EX Speedlite is mounted on a Sunpak 8001 UT medium duty aluminum tripod.

The last photo, taken using a Panansonic Lumix DMC-FZ150 superzoom bridge camera, shows the “stage” used for posing subjects such as the Zebra Clubtail dragonfly (Stylurus scudderi) exuvia shown in the preceding photo. A Tether Tools “Rock Solid Master Articulating Arm & Clamp Kit” connects one end of the articulating arm to a leg of the Manfrotto tripod; a Manfrotto 2909 Super Clamp is connected to the other end of the articulating arm and used to hold a piece of opaque white plastic that is 12″ square. (Yep, that’s a folded paper towel used to prevent the clamp from scratching the plastic.) The plastic has a smooth side and a textured side; I prefer the textured side. An Opteka Triple Axis Spirit Level is used to level the “stage.”

Macro photography “stage.”

Product Reviews

See “Good news, bad news,” a related blog post in which I reviewed the Manfrotto 405 geared tripod head and Neewer focus rails.

Manfrotto makes an articulating arm that is similar to the one made by Tether Tools, shown above. The Manfrotto 244N Variable Friction Magic Arm is more expensive than the Tether Tools “Rock Solid Master Articulating Arm,” so I chose the less expensive arm. I’m reminded of the old saying “you get what you pay for.” In retrospect, I don’t recommend any of the articulating arms and clamps made by Tether Tools.

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Habitat for Tiger Spiketail dragonfly

August 9, 2018

In the world of odonates, there are habitat generalists and habitat specialists. Tiger Spiketail dragonfly (Cordulegaster erronea) is a habitat specialist.

Habitat: Small forest streams and seeps, often with skunk cabbage and interrupted fern. Source Credit: Paulson, Dennis (2011-12-19). Dragonflies and Damselflies of the East (Princeton Field Guides) (Kindle Locations 7028-7029). Princeton University Press. Kindle Edition.

The following video shows ideal habitat for C. erronea: A clean, seep-fed small stream in the forest.

The black rock in the middle of the creek is approximately five feet (~5′) from the place in the stream channel where I was sitting on a Coleman camp stool. The video begins with me looking at a seep that feeds the stream; then I pan left, right, and back to center stage.

Tech Tips: The preceding movie looks better viewed in full-screen mode. The video was recorded in 1080p at 60 fps using a head-mounted GoPro Hero4 Black action camera. The camera was positioned so that it recorded what I saw when looking straight ahead; the scene changed by moving my head. 60 fps was used so that I could edit the video to show smooth slow-motion video of Tiger Spiketail dragonflies in flight. I think one of the bigger take-aways is a Tiger fly-by would have been recorded clearly enough to be able to identify the species. For what it’s worth, the closest focusing distance of the GoPro Hero4 Black is approximately 12 inches (~1′).

GoPro CapCam©

A GoPro QuickClip was used to mount an action camera on the bill of a baseball cap.

GoPro Hero4 Black action camera, plus QuickClip mount.

The GoPro Head Strap + QuickClip is compatible with all GoPro cameras and sells for $19.95 retail.

GoPro Hero4 Black action camera, plus QuickClip mount.

The Backstory

I visited the location shown in the video three times: Several Tiger Spiketail dragonflies were observed at the site on 19- and 26 July 2018; no Tiger Spiketails were spotted on 06 August 2018, the day the video was recorded. It’s worth noting that the adult flight period for C. erronea peaks in July in Northern Virginia (USA). Most of the window of opportunity was missed due to near record setting rainfall for the month of July, including a period of seven consecutive days of rain totaling nearly 10 inches!

Although I saw several Tiger Spiketail dragonflies, every individual was in flight and I was unable to shoot still photos and/or video — they were gone by the time I reached for my camera! The GoPro CapCam© is my solution to this problem.

An Apple iPad mini is used to remotely control the action camera using the GoPro app (formerly known as “Capture”) via Bluetooth. Among many features, the app provides real-time display of the camera field of view. The camera is positioned correctly on the bill of my cap by holding the iPad directly in my line of sight and adjusting the camera mount so the iPad is shown in the middle of the screen, against the background.

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Good news, bad news

March 10, 2018

Regular readers of my blog know I have been shooting a lot of studio macro photographs recently. Three essential items of gear are used for every shot but are mentioned rarely in the “Tech Tips” featured in many blog posts, so I thought it would be a good time to pause to share my thoughts about some of the behind-the-scenes gear that I use.

Let me just say at the outset that commercial product photography is more challenging than one might think. Witness the following quick-and-dirty photo used to show two of three items of gear that will be discussed in this post — those are some ugly shadows caused by an external flash unit!

Manfrotto tripod head and tripod legs, plus Neewer focus rails.

The preceding photo shows a Manfrotto 405 Geared Tripod Head plus Neewer Pro 4-Way Macro Focusing Focus Rail mounted on a Manfrotto 055XPROB Aluminum Tripod.

Manfrotto 405 Geared Tripod Head

Let’s start with the three-way geared tripod head. Although the 405 is extremely expensive, it’s a JOY TO USE! It’s vastly superior to both ball heads that I own, including one made by Manfrotto and another made by Vanguard. Each axis of motion features two geared knobs: one for coarse adjustment; another for fine adjustment. The three-way geared tripod head is much easier and faster to use to position my camera exactly where I want it, unlike a ball head.

That’s the good news. So what’s the bad news? The Manfrotto 405 Geared Tripod Head weighs 3.53 lb. Of course, the weight of the tripod head is added to the weight of the tripod itself. In this case, the Manfrotto 055XPROB weighs 5.29 lb, for a combined weight of 8.82 lb, less the weight of the focus rail(s) and camera/lens/flash.

A heavier tripod head and tripod legs can support heavier camera gear, but the obvious trade-off is portability. This rig is good for studio photography but less than ideal for field work.

Neewer Pro 4-Way Macro Focusing Focus Rail

Let’s start with the good news. At a price-point of ~$26.00, the Neewer Pro 4-Way Macro Focusing Focus Rail is priced toward the less expensive end of the cost continuum for focus rails. The product was endorsed by a trusted source, so I bought one.

The Neewer focus rail works well with lighter camera rigs, but it is insufficiently stable for high-magnification macro photography using heavier camera rigs.

If you’re just getting into macro photography and you’re using a relatively light camera such as the Panasonic Lumix DMC-FZ150 superzoom camera (my go-to camera kit for photowalking), then the Neewer focus rail is a good choice. Otherwise you will discover quickly you need a professional-grade focus rail. Can you guess my next gear purchase?

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

What is it?

February 18, 2018

It’s time for another exciting edition of “What is it?” Well, what is shown in the following photograph?

What is shown in this photograph?

If you were thinking “empty containers of Philadelphia cream cheese spread,” then you’re only half right.

These small plastic tubs can be repurposed as storage containers for odonate exuviae, such as the Sable Clubtail dragonfly (Stenogomphurus rogersi) exuvia shown below. (Oops, I just noticed it’s time to update the label on the container!)

Storage container for a Sable Clubtail dragonfly (exuvia).

The containers are ideal in many ways. They’re not too big and not too small. The tubs can be “nested” so they don’t take up much space when you’re in the field. For long-term storage, the closed containers can be stacked neatly inside a larger box such as a Rubbermaid Keeper. And the tubs can be used to soak specimens in soapy water in order to clean- and/or re-pose exuviae when they’re pliable.

Finally, think about all the tasty toasted bagels and cream cheese that you get to eat in order to build a collection of specimen containers — that’s what I call a win-win situation!

Copyright © 2018 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Gear talk

December 18, 2017

The following photograph shows my Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera, Fujifilm MCEX-11 extension tube, and new Fujinon XF80mm macro lens. The latter will be the subject of another blog post after I have an opportunity to use the lens for more than a few test shots. For now let me just share my first impression: It’s the sharpest lens I own, and as an owner of several Canon “L” series lenses, that’s saying a lot!

This post is a quick review of the Neewer “L” bracket and Desmond DAC-X1 adaptor.

Neewer “L” bracket and Desmond DAC-X1 adapter.

The primary advantage of using an “L” bracket is to be able to switch from landscape view to portrait view quickly. Many cameras, if not most, feature a tripod mounting screw that is offset from the line of sight along the barrel of the lens. That problem is solved by using an “L” bracket. And many tripod mounting plates block access to one or more camera “doors” such as the battery compartment, memory card slots, and in/out ports for USB, HDMI, etc.

The Neewer Metal Quick Shoe Plate L-Plate Bracket Hand Grip for Fuji X-T1, as its name suggests, is custom made for my Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera. It’s lightweight, fits perfectly, and facilitates access to all of the camera compartments. The mounting screw can be tightened using a metal coin. (I prefer using a nickel, since it’s about the right thickness and has a smooth edge that won’t scratch your gear.)

Many “L” brackets, including the Neewer bracket, feature an Arca-Swiss style tripod mount. Since most of my tripod heads use the Manfrotto RC2 system of quick release tripod plates, I needed to find a solution that would enable me to mount an Arca-Swiss tripod plate on my RC2 plates.

After a little research on the Internet (Google is your friend), I decided to buy the Desmond DAC-X1 Skeleton Clamp. The DAC-X1 is shown in the lower-right corner of the featured photo. The DAC-X1 is mounted on a Manfrotto RC2 quick release tripod plate. It’s well-designed, lightweight, and works as advertised.

Best of all, both products are relatively inexpensive. I ordered both items from Amazon for $19.95 each, with free shipping and handling. You could pay a lot more than $40 total for similar products, but I don’t know why you would. I can’t imagine the “L” brackets made by other manufacturers are engineered so much better than the Neewer bracket that I could rationalize spending hundreds of dollars more. After admittedly limited testing, I highly recommend both products.


Thanks to several members of the Facebook Fujilove Readers Group, especially Thomas Stu, for sharing their expert advice regarding “L” brackets for the Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera. It’s easy to find “L” brackets for the X-T2, the successor to the X-T1, but I couldn’t find a bracket made specifically for my X-T1. Problem solved quickly thanks to the kindness of strangers!

Editor’s Notes

Gear talk” is a new “Tag” that I began using relatively recently. I’m not sure whether gear talk should be a “Category.” Reader feedback is welcome.

Anyway, this is the kind of blog post I had in mind when I created the new tag. It is intended for posts that are focused more on photography gear than the subjects I like to photograph. Good gear makes it easier to shoot good photographs.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

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