Archive for the ‘Photoshop’ Category

Fine-lined Emerald dragonfly redux (Part 2)

September 21, 2017

The same Fine-lined Emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora filosa) was photographed while it perched on grasses located in two shady places along one of the trails at Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Prince William County, Virginia USA.

This individual is a male, as indicated by his terminal appendages and prominent hamules.

Set 3

A busy background of thigh-high grasses made it challenging to find a pleasing composition.

Set 4

Photo Set 4 is my favorite, in terms of both quantity and quality. The dragonfly is shown perching on a grass stem that is estimated to be more than six feet high.

The next three photos are uncropped, that is, full-size images (4,000 x 3,000 pixels). This individual has a distinctive eye injury to the top of his left eye (facing forward) that enabled me to recognize the same male dragonfly is the subject in all four photo sets.

Did you notice the male Big Bluet damselfly (Enallagma durum) that photo-bombed the preceding image?

The last photo was cropped lightly in order to improve the composition, and Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 was used to remove a distracting element from the lower-right corner of the image.

Related Resources

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

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Black Saddlebags (terminal appendages)

September 15, 2017

Male and female Black Saddlebags dragonflies (Tramea lacerata) are somewhat similar in appearance. Terminal appendages can be used to identify gender.

Female

A female Black Saddlebags was spotted along Deephole Point Road at Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Prince William County, Virginia USA.

10 SEP 2017 | Occoquan Bay NWR | Black Saddlebags (female)

Female dragonflies have a pair of cerci (superior appendages) that have little or no function.

10 SEP 2017 | Occoquan Bay NWR | Black Saddlebags (female)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Male

Male dragonflies have three terminal appendages, collectively called “claspers,” that are used to grab and hold female dragonflies during mating: an upper pair of cerci (“superior appendages”); and a lower unpaired epiproct (“inferior appendage”).

A male Black Saddlebags was spotted in the central wetland area at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

12 SEP 2014 | Huntley Meadows Park | Black Saddlebags (male)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Springtime Darner (terminal appendages)

September 11, 2017

Male and female Springtime Darner dragonflies (Basiaeschna janata) are colored similarly sometimes. Terminal appendages can be used to identify gender.

Male

Male dragonflies have three terminal appendages, collectively called “claspers,” that are used to grab and hold female dragonflies during mating: an upper pair of cerci (“superior appendages”); and a lower unpaired epiproct (“inferior appendage”).

A male Springtime Darner was spotted along a mid-size rocky stream located at Hemlock Overlook Regional Park (HORP), Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Female

Female dragonflies have a pair of cerci (superior appendages) that have little or no function.

Female Springtime Darners are polymorphic: the spots on their abdomen are either blue (andromorphic) or green (heteromorphic); this female — spotted at a remote location in Huntley Meadows Park (HMP) — is a blue andromorph.

15 APR 2016 | HMP | Springtime Darner (female, blue andromorph)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Russet-tipped Clubtail (terminal appendages)

August 14, 2017

Male Russet-tipped Clubtail dragonflies (Stylurus plagiatus) have a larger, more colorful club than females of the same species, their hind wings are “indented,” and their terminal appendages are shaped differently. Compare and contrast the appearance of males and females by looking at the following annotated images.

Male

Male dragonflies have three terminal appendages, collectively called “claspers,” that are used to grab and hold female dragonflies during mating: an upper pair of cerci (“superior appendages”); and a lower unpaired epiproct (“inferior appendage”).

14 OCT 2016 | JMAWR | Russet-tipped Clubtail (male)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Notice the epiproct is a wide “plate” that spans both cerci, as shown in the full-size version of the preceding annotated image.

Female

All female dragonflies have a pair of cerci (superior appendages) that have little or no function. The hind wings of female clubtails are rounded.

21 AUG 2015 | Powhatan County, VA | Russet-tipped Clubtail (female)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

The female Russet-tipped Clubtail dragonfly shown in the preceding image was spotted along the James River by my good friend Michael Boatwright, founder of the Virginia Odonata Facebook group. Sincere thanks to Mike for permission to use his photographs (background and inset).

Related Resources: Digital Dragonflies, presenting high-resolution digital scans of living dragonflies.

  • Genus Stylurus | Stylurus plagiatus | Russet-tipped Clubtail | male | top view
  • Genus Stylurus | Stylurus plagiatus | Russet-tipped Clubtail | female | top view
  • Genus Stylurus | Stylurus plagiatus | Russet-tipped Clubtail | female | side view

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Adding an extension tube

August 2, 2017

Optics theory

The net effect of adding an extension tube between a lens and camera body is the “working distance” is decreased, that is, the distance from the front of the lens barrel to the subject is decreased. A smaller working distance means the same lens will focus closer to the subject, thereby increasing magnification.

The effect is greater at shorter focal lengths, as shown by the following table of magnification for the two extension tubes sold by Fujifilm USA.

Table courtesy Fujifilm USA.

Theory into practice

An Eastern Ringtail dragonfly (Erpetogomphus designatus) was spotted along the Potomac River at Riverbend Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a female, as indicated by her terminal appendages and rounded hind wings.

Both photos in this set were taken using my Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera, Fujinon XF55-200mm zoom lens plus a “Fotasy” brand 16mm extension tube, and Fujifilm EF-X500 shoe mount flash. The lens was set for a focal length of 200mm (~350mm, 35mm equivalent).

At 200mm, the working distance of the lens is 905 mm (90.5 cm, ~35.63 in), or approximately three (3) feet. With a 16mm extension tube mounted between the lens and camera body, the working distance is reduced to 595 mm (59.5 cm, ~23.43 in), or approximately two (2) feet. At a focal length of 55mm, adding the extension tube would result in photos that look more like “macro” photos; at 200mm, adding the extension tube resulted in photos that look like a lens with a longer focal length was used to take the shots.

The first photo is uncropped. I’ve never been able to get a shot like this using a mid-range telephoto zoom lens such as the Fujinon 55-200mm. The 16mm extension tube is the difference-maker.

The last photo is cropped slightly, but not enough to affect the apparent magnification. I look closely at the edges of my photos. In this case, I cropped the photo to remove some distracting elements and leading lines.

Editor’s Notes

I bought a set of two “Fotasy” brand extension tubes (10mm, 16mm) years before Fujifilm released their set of two. The advantage of the Fotasy extension tubes is a set of two costs a little more than half as much as a single Fujifilm extension tube. The disadvantage is compatibility. The Fotasy extension tubes work with my Fujinon XF18-55mm (27-82.5mm, 35mm equivalent) “kit” lens and Fujinon XF55-200mm mid-range telephoto zoom lens; they don’t work with my Fujinon XF100-400mm (152-609mm, 35mm equivalent) telephoto zoom lens. For what it’s worth, the 100-400mm lens was released after the Fotasy extension tubes. Bottom line: I recommend Fujifilm extension tubes, despite the fact that they are significantly more expensive than Fotasy extension tubes.

The Depth of Field is razor thin, in contrast with shooting without an extension tube. I shot the preceding photos at f/11; f/16 or smaller would have been better.

In order to reduce “camera shake,” I almost always shoot in shutter priority mode using the reciprocal rule. Remember, it’s the 35mm equivalent that matters: since my lens is ~350mm, the shutter speed should be set for at least 1/350s; in this case, it was set for 1/1,000s. A monopod was used for added stability.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Halloween Pennant (young male)

July 25, 2017

Halloween Pennant dragonfly (Celithemis eponina) was spotted during a photowalk at Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge (OBNWR), Prince William County, Virginia USA. This individual is a young male, as indicated by his yellowish-orange coloration, hamules, and terminal appendages.

Both photos in this gallery show the dragonfly perching at the top of Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides). Eastern gamagrass grows to a height of five- to six feet.

Look at the full-size version of the preceding photo. With its jaw open, the head of this pennant reminds me of the skull on a Jolly Roger flag. Argh, matey!

The last photo is my favorite in the set. The clarity, color palette and composition are perfect, he said not too modestly.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Eastern Ringtail dragonfly (female)

July 21, 2017

An Eastern Ringtail dragonfly (Erpetogomphus designatus) was spotted along the Potomac River at Riverbend Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a female, as indicated by her terminal appendages and rounded hind wings.

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

I saw tens of male Eastern Ringtail, but only one female.

The preceding photograph is my favorite in the set. I like the way the neutral colors in the pavement complement the coloration of the female.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Mocha Emerald dragonfly claspers

July 13, 2017

Mocha Emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora linearis) was spotted along a small creek at a remote location in the forest at Huntley Meadows Park. This individual is a male, as indicated by his terminal appendages and hamules.

All male dragonflies have three terminal appendages, collectively called “claspers,” that are used to grab and hold female dragonflies during mating: an upper pair of cerci (“superior appendages”) and a lower unpaired epiproct (“inferior appendage”).

09 JUL 2017 | Huntley Meadows Park | Mocha Emerald (male)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

09 JUL 2017 | Huntley Meadows Park | Mocha Emerald (male)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Male dragonfly secondary genitalia, called hamules, are located below abdominal segments two and three (S2 and S3), as shown in the following annotated image. Hamules come in a variety of sizes and shapes, but their function is identical for all species of odonates.

hamules: paired structures that project from genital pocket under second segment and hold female abdomen in place during copulation Source Credit: Paulson, Dennis (2011-12-19). Dragonflies and Damselflies of the East (Princeton Field Guides) (Kindle Locations 11618-116198). Princeton University Press. Kindle Edition.

09 JUL 2017 | Huntley Meadows Park | Mocha Emerald (male)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Technique Hint: Did you notice that the “focus” of each photo (not to be confused with the focus point) is shown against a lighter background? That’s no accident — I composed each shot that way. As a result, the terminal appendages (cerci and epiproct) are much easier to see in the first two photos than the last shot, in which the composition highlights the hamules.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Calico making the case for claspers

June 27, 2017

A Calico Pennant dragonfly (Celithemis elisa) was spotted at Painted Turtle Pond, Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge (OBNWR), Prince William County, Virginia USA.

Mature adult female Calico Pennants are yellow; mature adult male Calico Pennants are red. So the following individual must be female, right? Wrong!

20 JUN 2017 | OBNWR | Calico Pennant (immature male)

This individual is an immature male, as indicated by his terminal appendages and yellow coloration.

Male dragonflies have three terminal appendages, collectively called “claspers,” that are used to grab and hold female dragonflies during mating: an upper pair of cerci (“superior appendages”); and a lower unpaired epiproct (“inferior appendage”).

20 JUN 2017 | OBNWR | Calico Pennant (immature male)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

In contrast, female dragonflies have a pair of cerci (superior appendages) that have little or no function.

20 JUN 2017 | OBNWR | Calico Pennant (female)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Color can be a deceptive field marker. Immature males appear similar to immature females of the same species (and some mature females) for many types of dragonflies that display sexual dimorphism. This is true for many members of Family Libellulidae (Skimmers), such as Calico Pennant. Terminal appendages may be used to differentiate gender for many species of dragonflies.

20 JUN 2017 | OBNWR | Calico Pennant (immature male)

Related Resource: Odonate Terminal Appendages — single-topic field guides for dragonflies and damselflies featuring both text and annotated photos.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

“Record shot”

June 21, 2017

As a wildlife photographer with a focus on insect photography, one of my mantras is: “Get a shot, any shot; refine the shot.” In other words, don’t miss the opportunity to document a spotting by trying to get a great shot first.

11 JUN 2017 | Fluvanna County, VA | Dragonhunter (male)

The preceding photograph — heavily-cropped in order to compensate for the distance to the subject — is a “record shot” (at best) of a male Dragonhunter dragonfly (Hagenius brevistylus) that was spotted at the Hardware River Wildlife Management Area, Fluvanna County, Virginia USA.

The dragonfly was photographed from the banks of the Hardware River, approximately 20 feet above the water. Distance seems to be compressed in the photo, an effect of the mid-range telephoto lens used to take the shot. The Dragonhunter was perching ~10 feet above the water. I settled for a “record shot” since there was no way to get closer to the subject.

Tech Tips

The photo was taken using a Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera, Fujinon 55-200mm zoom lens, and Fujifilm EF-X500 shoe mount flash. Adobe Photoshop was used to remove a small distracting element from the left edge of the photo.

Editor’s Note

Thanks to fellow Virginians Karen Kearney and Mike Boatwright for adding the phrase “record shot” to my vocabulary.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.


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