Archive for the ‘Fujifilm X-T1’ Category

Cobra Clubtail external reproductive anatomy

May 28, 2017

I liked to make paper- and plastic models when I was a child. Seems like the directions for assembling many models — not that anyone reads the directions — always started by saying something like “Insert Tab A in Slot B.”

Oddly enough, that line reminds me of how odonates copulate, in general, and Cobra Clubtail dragonflies (Gomphurus vastus) in particular.

Male

The hamules are “Tab A.”

Female

The subgenital plate is “Slot B.”

Putting it all together

Insert Tab A in Slot B. That’s the PG-rated version of how Cobra Clubtail dragonflies copulate in order to reproduce.

The Backstory

There is an annual mass emergence of Cobra Clubtails during the first week-or-two of May at Riverbend Park. It’s a spectacular event worth seeing firsthand!

The following photo shows a dead female, one of several Cobra Clubtails that were trampled by groups of elementary school children visiting the park on 09 May 2017. Her premature death saddens me because it was avoidable — the students should have been warned to watch their step because there were lots of Cobra Clubtails perching on the ground almost everywhere.

In the hope the female didn’t die in vein, I reluctantly decided to photograph the corpse in order to illustrate her external reproductive anatomy.

Editor’s Note: Sincere thanks to Dennis Paulson for help in identifying the female parts on the ventral side of abdominal segments eight and nine (S8-9).

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Because it’s fun!

May 16, 2017

Why do I hunt odonates, that is, dragonflies and damselflies? I like being outdoors, visiting beautiful natural places. I like honing my skills as a wildlife photographer. Most importantly, it’s fun! I like the challenge of finding uncommon species, and the thrill of making new discoveries.

A Cobra Clubtail dragonfly (Gomphurus vastus) was spotted along the Potomac River at Riverbend Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male, as indicated by his terminal appendages and indented hind wings.

The male was perching on colorful kayaks stored in a wooden rack near the boat ramp. Notice the natural coloration of the dragonfly was affected by light reflected from the kayaks. That’s OK since this photo set is all about fun, right?

09 MAY 2017 | Riverbend Park | Cobra Clubtail (male)

Can you say “hamules?” Males of many species in the Family Gomphidae (Clubtails) have prominent secondary sex organs.

09 MAY 2017 | Riverbend Park | Cobra Clubtail (male)

09 MAY 2017 | Riverbend Park | Cobra Clubtail (male)

09 MAY 2017 | Riverbend Park | Cobra Clubtail (male)

09 MAY 2017 | Riverbend Park | Cobra Clubtail (male)

09 MAY 2017 | Riverbend Park | Cobra Clubtail (male)

Tech Tips: I carried two digital cameras during the trip to Riverbend Park: a Panasonic DMC-FZ150 superzoom bridge camera plus Canon 580EX Speedlite, my go-to kit for photowalking; as well as my Fujifilm X-T1Fujinon XF55-200mm zoom lens, and Fujifilm EF-X500 shoe mount flash. Since Fujifilm digital cameras are well-known for capturing vivid color, the X-T1 was the camera of choice for this colorful scene.

Editor’s Note: 16 May is the one-year anniversary of my first visit to Riverbend Park to see the annual mass emergence of Cobra Clubtail dragonflies that occurs during the first two weeks in May.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Macromia illinoiensis exuvia

March 15, 2017

Post update: Macromiidae exuvia

When this blog post was published on 19 April 2016, I was a novice at identifying odonate exuviae and I was just starting to get serious about studio macro photography. At the time, I was satisfied to be able to identify the dragonfly exuvia as a member of the Family Macromiidae (Cruisers).

What’s new?

I’ve learned a lot since then, including the identity of the specimen to the genus/species level. This is a Swift River Cruiser dragonfly (Macromia illinoiensis) exuvia that was collected along the Potomac River in Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

The first annotated image shows several characters that were used to identify the exuvia to the family level, including a mask-like labium featuring spork-like crenulations and a horn between its pointy eyes.

Swift River Cruiser (Macromia illinoiensis) | exuvia (face-head)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

The following dorsal view of the exuvia provides enough clues to identify the specimen to the genus/species level.

Swift River Cruiser (Macromia illinoiensis) | exuvia (dorsal)

The lateral spines of abdominal segment nine (S9) do not reach the tips of the inferior appendages (paraprocts), and if you look closely at the full-size version of the preceding photo then you should see a small mid-dorsal hook on abdominal segment 10 (S10). These characters indicate the genus is Macromia.

Notice the lateral spines of abdominal segments eight and nine (S8-9) are “directed straight to rearward,” indicating the species is illinoiensis.

Where it all began.

The last photo shows a teneral male Swift River Cruiser dragonfly clinging to the exuvia from which it emerged — the same exuvia featured in this post! Matt Ryan collected the exuvia after the adult dragonfly flew away from its perch. When Matt gave the exuvia to me several years later, he was unable to remember where it was collected. As soon as I was able to identify the exuvia to the genus/species level, I remembered seeing the following photo posted in one of Matt’s spottings on Project Noah.

Photo used with permission from Matthew J. Ryan.

With a little detective work, I was able to solve the mystery of the specific identity of the exuvia as well as when and where it was collected. Like I said, I’ve learned a lot since I published the first blog post related to this specimen!

Related Resources:

Editor’s Notes: A funny thing happened on the way to the forum. I rediscovered the “Key to the Genera of the Family Macromiidae” (p. 27, shown above) while paging through the document Identification Keys to Northeastern Anisoptera Larvae in search of the “Key to the Genera of the Family Corduliidae” (page 28). One look at the line drawing at the bottom of p. 27 and I knew the specific identity of the cruiser exuvia.

I need to refresh this blog post with more annotated images of the Macromia illinoiensis exuvia, including one that clearly shows the mid-dorsal hook on S10, but I was so eager to update the old post that I couldn’t wait to shoot and post-process the new images.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Tramea carolina exuvia

December 12, 2016

An exuvia from an unknown species of dragonfly was collected on 04 October 2016 at Mason Neck West Park (MNWP), Fairfax County, Virginia USA. A two-step process was used to identify the genus and species of the specimen.

Family

First, determine the family of the specimen. For reference, watch the excellent Vimeo video, Identifying dragonfly larva to family (8:06).

The exuviae has a mask-like labium (not flat) with evenly-toothed crenulations, indicating this individual is a member of Family Libellulidae (Skimmers). [See Photo No. 2.]

Genus and species

A dichotomous key was used to tentatively identify the exuvia as Carolina Saddlebags dragonfly (Tramea carolina), as indicated by the following morphological characteristics.

  • No dorsal hooks on any abdominal segments.
  • Lateral spines of abdominal segment nine (S9) are much longer than its mid-dorsal length. Lateral spines on segment eight (S8) are nearly as long as on segment nine (S9).[See Photo No. 3.]
  • Superior abdominal appendage (epiproct) is shorter than inferior abdominal appendages (paraprocts). [See Photo No. 3.]

Sincere thanks to Sue Gregoire, Kestrel Haven Migration Observatory, for verifying my preliminary observations and tentative identification!

No. 1

The specimen is approximately 2.4 cm (~0.9″) in length. Notice there are no dorsal hooks on any abdominal segments.

A dragonfly exuvia (Tramea carolina) collected at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 1 | Carolina Saddlebags (Tramea carolina) | exuvia (dorso-lateral)

The white filaments that extend from the split in the thorax (as shown in Photo No. 1-2, 4-6) are breathing tubes, artifacts of the unique respiratory system of dragonfly nymphs.

No. 2

The eyes are rounded and widely separated. Notice the mask-like labium (sometimes referred to as “spoon-shaped”) with evenly-toothed crenulations along the margins between two lateral lobes.

A dragonfly exuvia (Tramea carolina) collected at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 2 | Carolina Saddlebags (Tramea carolina) | exuvia (face-head)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

No. 3

A vertical white line marks the mid-dorsal length of abdominal segment nine (S9), as shown in the following annotated image; the vertical black line labeled “mid-dorsal length” is the same length as the white line. Notice the lateral spines of abdominal segment nine (S9) are much longer than its mid-dorsal length.

A dragonfly exuvia (Tramea carolina) collected at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 3 | Carolina Saddlebags (Tramea carolina) | exuvia (anal pyramid)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

One of the keys to identifying skimmer dragonflies to the species level is to carefully examine the anal pyramid (S10), including the cerci (sing. cercus), epiproct, and paraprocts. Notice the epiproct is shorter than the paraprocts.

There is a lot of “seaweed” (aquatic vegetation) clinging to the exuvia, especially noticeable at the posterior end. Some collectors like to clean their specimens; I prefer to photograph them “as is.”

More photos of the exuvia are shown below.

No. 4

A dragonfly exuvia (Tramea carolina) collected at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 4 | Carolina Saddlebags (Tramea carolina) | exuvia (dorsal)

No. 5

A dragonfly exuvia (Tramea carolina) collected at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 5 | Carolina Saddlebags (Tramea carolina) | exuvia (face-head)

No. 6

A dragonfly exuvia (Tramea carolina) collected at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 6 | Carolina Saddlebags (Tramea carolina) | exuvia (anal pyramid)

Tech Tips:

The following equipment was used to shoot the preceding photographs:

Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 was used to annotate selected images.

Related Resources:

dichotomous key: a key for the identification of organisms based on a series of choices between alternative characters. Source Credit: Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Assuming the convention of labeling the two branches of each dichotomy as “a” and “b”, e.g. 1a, 1b, etc., a list of branches in the decision tree that I used to identify the genus of the dragonfly exuviae is as follows: 1b; 4b; 5b; 10a; 11b; 12b Tramea. A supplemental key featuring one dichotomy was used to identify the species: 1a carolina BINGO!

In long form, the decision tree is as follows:

p. 36, Key to the Genera of the Family Libellulidae
1b – Eyes lower, more broadly rounded and more lateral in position; abdomen usually ending more bluntly. [Go to] 4
4b – These appendages [inferior abdominal appendages (paraprocts)] straight or nearly so. [Go to] 5
5b – No dorsal hooks on any abdominal segments. [Go to] 10
10a – Lateral spines of segment 9 much longer than its mid-dorsal length. [Go to] 11
11b – Lateral spines on 8 nearly as long as on 9. [Go to] 12
12b – Superior abdominal appendage (epiproct) shorter than inferiors [inferior abdominal appendages (paraprocts)]. Tramea BINGO!

p. 41, Key to the species of the genus Tramea
1a – Lateral spines of segment 8 directed straight to rearward; paraprocts longer than epiproct; two rows of spinules on upper surface of epiproct. carolina BINGO!

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Dragonhunter dragonfly exuvia

June 12, 2016

A Dragonhunter dragonfly (Hagenius brevistylus) exuvia was collected along the Little Patuxent River by Richard Orr, renowned expert on odonates of the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, during an Audubon Naturalist Society adult class and field trip to the Patuxent Research Refuge on 15 June 2014.

Dragonhunter [nymphs] crawl out of the river and often cling on wet wood or roots/vegetation. I have seen them on mud but they seem to like vegetation or wood to cling to during emergence. I took a photo…of a cast skin at the same area [where this specimen was collected]. Source Credit: Personal communication from Richard Orr.

The decision tree used to identify the exuvia as a member of the Gomphidae Family (Clubtails) is fairly simple and straightforward.

  • The specimen has a flat labium (not mask-like).
  • Antennae are either club-shaped or paddle-like (not thin and threadlike as in Aeshnidae).

Dragonhunter is the largest of North American clubtails; accordingly the large size and shape of a Dragonhunter exuvia is so distinctive that it is relatively easy to identify to the species level.

A Dragonhunter dragonfly (Hagenius brevistylus) exuviae collected along the Little Patuxent River, Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland USA.

Lateral view showing left side, facing forward (annotated).

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Notice the large, paddle-like antennae. They remind me of ping pong paddles.

A Dragonhunter dragonfly (Hagenius brevistylus) exuviae collected along the Little Patuxent River, Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland USA.

Head-on view (annotated).

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

The large size and shape of Dragonhunter exuviae are key field markers.

A Dragonhunter dragonfly (Hagenius brevistylus) exuviae collected along the Little Patuxent River, Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland USA.

Dorsal view.

All clubtail nymphs/evuviae have a flat labium that doesn’t cover the face.

A Dragonhunter dragonfly (Hagenius brevistylus) exuviae collected along the Little Patuxent River, Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland USA.

Ventral view (annotated).

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Tech Tips:

The following equipment was used to shoot the preceding photographs: Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera; Fujinon XF18-55mm (27mm-82.5mm, 35mm equivalent) zoom lens plus “Fotasy” brand 10mm extension tube; Fujifilm Shoe Mount Flash EF-42 (on-camera, in TTL mode); Nissin i40 external flash unit (off-camera, in SD mode). A snap-on plastic diffuser was used for each external flash.

Adobe Photoshop CC 2015 was used to annotate selected images.

Related Resources:

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Aeshnidae exuvia

May 15, 2016

An odonate exuvia was spotted on 14 August 2012 along the boardwalk in the central wetland area at Huntley Meadows Park. The specimen was broken into three pieces when I found it: head and thorax; wing pads; and abdomen.

This individual is a member of the Family Aeshnidae (Darners). Here’s the decision tree I used to tentatively identify the exuvia as a member of the Darner Family.

  • The specimen has a flat labium that doesn’t cover the face (not mask-like).
  • Antennae are thin and thread-like (not club-like, as in Gomphidae).

Photo Set 1

Notice the labium is flat and isn’t mask-like, that is, doesn’t cover the face of the larva/exuvia.

An odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of the Aeshnidae Family.

Head and thorax (lateral view).

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Also notice the antennae are thin and thread-like, as shown in the following annotated image.

An odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of the Aeshnidae Family.

Head and thorax (dorsal side).

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

The shape of the mentum and prementum (especially the rounded palpal blades) indicates this specimen is a Common Green Darner dragonfly (Anax junius), one of the more common species of Aeshnidae found at Huntley Meadows Park.

An odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of the Aeshnidae Family.

Head and thorax (ventral side).

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Photo Set 2

The next photo shows the wing pads as well as part of abdominal segment one (S1). All odonates have a 10-segmented abdomen. The anterior side is toward the bottom of the photo; posterior toward the top.

An odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of the Aeshnidae Family.

Wing pads (dorsal view).

Abdominal segments two through 10 (S2-10) are shown in the following photo.

An odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of the Aeshnidae Family.

Abdomen (dorsal view).

Lateral spines along abdominal segments seven, eight, and nine (S7-9) verifies the genus and species as Anax junius. Notice the faint feature on segment nine (S9), highlighted by a white circle. This is a “rudimentary ovipositor,” according to SueandJohn KestrelHaven, active members of the “Northeast Odonata” Facebook group. An ovipositor is used for egg-laying by all adult damselflies and some species of adult dragonflies: females have this feature; males do not.

An odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of the Aeshnidae Family.

Abdomen (ventral view).

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Tech Tips:

The following equipment was used to shoot the preceding photographs:

Adobe Photoshop CC 2015 was used to annotate selected images.

The following photo reveals a behind the scenes look at my low-tech solution for staging specimen parts: a plastic toothpick (tan) from a Swiss Army knife held by a small plastic clothespin (green); both parts were held by an alligator clip (silver) mounted on a short, flexible arm.

An odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of the Aeshnidae Family.

All specimens were staged in front of the same opaque white plastic background. Hard to believe, huh? I own an 18% gray scale card; at some point, I should start using it to adjust the white balance in my macro photos!

Related Resources:

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Macromiidae exuvia

April 19, 2016

A dragonfly exuvia was collected along the Potomac River in Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This specimen is a member of the Family Macromiidae (Cruisers).

The following macro photo enabled me to see most of the critical field marks required to make an identification to the family level for this specimen. Here’s the decision tree I used to tentatively identify the exuvia as a member of the Cruiser Family.

  • The specimen has a mask-like labium.
  • The teeth on the margins of the labium have a regular pattern. (The pattern reminds me of a “spork.”)
  • There is a horn between the eyes. Its eyes are small, wide set, and stick up.

Turns out I was correct — the exuvia is a member of the Family Macromiidae! Thanks to aquatic entomologist Celeste Searles Mazzacano, Ph.D., for verifying my tentative identification.

A dragonfly exuvia spotted at Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve. This specimen is a member of the Family Macromiidae (Cruisers).

ISO 400 | 50mm | 0 ev | f/22 | 1/500s

The next photo shows a dorsal view that should enable me to identify the specimen to the genus and species level, a work in progress. In Northern Virginia, probable species in the Cruiser Family include Stream Cruiser (Didymops transversa), Swift River Cruiser (Macromia illinoiensis illinoiensis), and Royal River Cruiser (Macromia taeniolata).

A dragonfly exuvia spotted at Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve. This specimen is a member of the Family Macromiidae (Cruisers).

ISO 800 | 35.8mm (54mm, 35mm equivalent) | 0 ev | f/20 | 180s

Tech Tips:

The following equipment was used to shoot the preceding photographs:

Adobe Photoshop CC 2015 was used for minor touch-up work on the background of both photos.

Related Resources:

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Identifying dragonfly larvae to family

April 7, 2016

A couple of odonate exuviae were spotted in the bioswale (when it still retained water) at the head-end of the Hike-Bike Trail, Huntley Meadows Park. Both specimens are dragonfly exuvia, slightly less than 3/4″ long. I shot some quick-and-dirty still photos of the pair, as well as two sets of macro photos focusing on key anatomical parts.

Then I watched (and transcribed) the instructional video “Identifying dragonfly larva to family.” Be forewarned: Although the identification process is vocabulary-rich, the prerequisite terminology is well-illustrated in the video. Here’s the decision tree I used to make a tentative identification of the family.

Turns out I was correct — the exuviae are members of the Family Libellulidae (Skimmers)! Thanks to aquatic entomologist Celeste Searles Mazzacano, Ph.D., for verifying my tentative identification. The next (bigger) challenge: Learn how to identify odonate exuviae to the genus and species level.

A couple of odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

ISO 800| 400mm (600mm, 35mm equivalent) | 0 ev | f/11 | 1/250s

The first two photos were taken using a Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera and Fujinon XF100-400mm telephoto zoom lens set for 400mm.

A couple of odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

ISO 800| 400mm (600mm, 35mm equivalent) | 0 ev | f/11 | 1/250s

The next set of photos was taken using a Raynox DCR-250 close-up filter with my tripod-mounted Panasonic Lumix DMC-FZ150 superzoom digital camera; the scene was lighted using the built-in pop-up flash and Nissin i40 external flash (off-camera, in video mode).

A couple of odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

ISO 100| 28mm (155mm, 35mm equivalent) | -1.3 ev | f/7.1 | 1/3s

A couple of odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

ISO 100| 28mm (155mm, 35mm equivalent) | -1.3 ev | f/7.1 | 1/160s

The following photo is my favorite in this subset.

A couple of odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

ISO 100| 57mm (318mm, 35mm equivalent) | -1.3 ev | f/7.1 | 1/250s

Notice the teeth on the margins of the labium are relatively smooth.

A couple of odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

ISO 100| 55mm (304mm, 35mm equivalent) | -1.3 ev | f/7.1 | 1/250s

The last set of photos was taken using a Raynox DCR-250 close-up filter with my tripod-mounted Panasonic Lumix DMC-FZ150 superzoom digital camera; the scene was lighted using an off-camera Sunpak LED-160 Video Light (with a white translucent plastic filter) and Nissin i40 external flash (off-camera, in video mode).

A couple of odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

ISO 100| 56mm (311mm, 35mm equivalent) | -1 ev | f/7.1 | 1/10s

A couple of odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

ISO 100| 57mm (318mm, 35mm equivalent) | -1 ev | f/7.1 | 1/8s

The following photo is my favorite in this subset.

A couple of odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

ISO 100| 30mm (164mm, 35mm equivalent) | -1 ev | f/7.1 | 1/6s

The last two shots are close-ups of the anal pyramid. Notice the cerci are less than half the length of paraprocts.

A couple of odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

ISO 100| 28mm (158mm, 35mm equivalent) | -1 ev | f/7.1 | 1/8s

A couple of odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

ISO 100| 56mm (311mm, 35mm equivalent) | -1 ev | f/7.1 | 1/8s

Related Resources:

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Country Beaver, City Beaver

April 5, 2016

Remember “Country Mouse, City Mouse,” one of Aesop’s Fables? In this case, the familiar short story has been repurposed for the North American Beavers (Castor canadensis) that inhabit the wetlands of Huntley Meadows Park.

City Beaver

City beaver lives in two “buildings” located along the thoroughfare through the heart of the park: the boardwalk in the central wetland area. The following photo shows one of two active beaver lodges located along the boardwalk; this lodge can be seen from the observation tower overlooking the central wetland area. The other lodge overlaps the beginning of the boardwalk — believe me, you can’t miss it!

The next photo shows a zoomed-in view of the same beaver lodge, viewed from the observation tower.

The last photo in this subset shows the same beaver lodge as seen from ground level in the central wetland area.

Country Beaver

Country beaver lives far from the madding crowd, in one (maybe two) lodge(s) located along Barnyard Run, far downstream from the central wetland area. The “primary structure,” shown below, is the original lodge built alongside a long dam across the stream.

A “secondary structure,” located closer to the beaver dam, might be a newer lodge. Looking at these two photos, it appears as though the original lodge isn’t being actively maintained. Perhaps the new structure is either a mother-in-law house or summer cottage!

Look closely at the full-size version of the last photo in this subset — a landscape shot showing the environment in which “Country Beaver” lives. Can you see both the primary- and secondary structures on the far side of the beaver pond?

The Backstory (for the preceding photo): I was field testing a technique for focusing at the hyperfocal distance using my Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera and Fujinon XF18-55mm (27mm-82.5mm, 35mm equivalent) zoom lens. The camera was set for manual exposure and manual focus. I couldn’t read the distance scale on the LCD in bright sunlight so I wasn’t sure the lens was adjusted to a distance of ~5 feet, the hyperfocal distance for 18mm at f/11. Turns out I was focused at ~7 feet rather than 5 feet, but it’s OK to focus a little farther than the hyperfocal distance — it’s like cheap insurance most of the photo will be acceptably in focus. Just to be sure, I switched to f/16 before taking the shot! The scene was in focus from 2′ 3.2” to infinity. I lost about a foot of depth-of-field (toward the foreground) but ended up cropping a little of the foreground anyway. The technique seems to work well and I’m satisfied with the results of my quick-and-dirty field test.

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Señor Frog

March 6, 2016

During the “off-season,” I use the downtime exploring new sites for wildlife photography and for experimenting with new photography gear and techniques. For example, I spent a few days in the “BoG Photo Studio” recently experimenting with extension tubes.

Macro extension tubes are inserted between the lens and the camera body and increase the distance between the lens elements and the sensor enabling users to focus on subjects much closer to the camera. Source Credit: Fujifilm Macro Extension Tubes MCEX-11 and MCEX-16.

The subject in this set of test shots is a toy frog. His name is “Señor Frog,” as in, “I seen your frog, Señor.” Just look at him. He’s SO CUTE, don’t you want to kiss him? I found Señor Frog in a geocache located in Fairfax County, Virginia USA; the item I traded for Señor Frog is cool but he is cooler!

Canon EOS 5D Mark II

The first photo was shot on 19 February 2016 using a Canon EOS 5D Mark II plus Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L zoom lens, the 20mm Kenko macro automatic extension tube (from a set of three), 580EX II Speedlite & Vello diffuser, and Vanguard Alta Pro 263AB tripod and Manfrotto 054 Magnesium Ball Head with Q2 Quick Release.

The original image is a RAW file (CR2), taken using manual exposure and manual focus; the flash was on and fired. The minimum focusing distance for the 70-200mm lens is 1.2 m (3.9 ft.). Adding the 20mm extension tube reduced the minimum focusing distance: at a focal length of 135mm, the working distance was ~1.5 feet; at 200mm the working distance was estimated to be 2-3 feet.

IMG_0187-CR2-Ver2_Aperture

ISO 400 | 148mm | 0 ev | f/32 | 1/160s

Fujifilm X-T1

The next photo was taken on 18 February 2016 using a Fujifilm X-T1 digital camera plus Fujinon XF18-55mm (27-82.5mm, 35mm equivalent) “kit” lens, Nissin i40 external flash (TTL), and Vanguard Alta Pro 263AB tripod and Manfrotto 054 Magnesium Ball Head with Q2 Quick Release.

The original image is a RAW file (RAF), shot using manual exposure and automatic focus; the flash was on and fired. The working distance was ~30cm, the same as the minimum focusing distance for this lens. That’s fairly close to the subject considering no extension tubes were used! The 10mm “Fotasy” brand extension tube (set of two) works well with this lens, reducing the minimum focusing distance to ~7 inches (~18 cm). At that distance, it was impossible to see the entire subject.

"Señor Frog," a toy frog found in a geocache located in Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

ISO 800 | 55mm (83mm, 35mm equivalent) | -2 ev | f/16 | 1/250s

The last photo was shot on 15 February 2016 using a Fujifilm X-T1 plus Fujinon XF55-200mm zoom lens, both “Fotasy” brand extension tubes (set of two, stacked together), Fujifilm Shoe Mount Flash EF-42 (TTL), and Vanguard Alta Pro 263AB tripod and Manfrotto 054 Magnesium Ball Head with Q2 Quick Release.

The original image is a RAW file (RAF), taken using manual exposure and automatic focus; the flash was on and fired. The minimum focusing distance of 1.1 m (3 ft. 7 in.) is estimated to be half as far using both extension tubes (10 + 16 = 26mm).

"Señor Frog," a toy frog found in a geocache located in Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

ISO 800 | 134.5mm (202mm, 35mm equivalent) | 0 ev | f/11 | 1/180s

Lessons Learned

So what are the take-aways from my experimentation? The time to figure out how your gear works is not when the photo opportunity of a lifetime presents itself! My skill set now includes several photographic techniques for getting closer to the subject, thereby enabling smaller subjects such as frogs and odonates to fill the frame, that is, assuming these subjects are less skittish than usual.

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.


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