Archive for December, 2016

Top 10 Photos of 2016

December 30, 2016

The following gallery shows 33 finalists for my “Top 10 Photos of 2016.” The photos are presented in reverse-chronological order beginning in December 2016 and ending in May 2016.

The Top 10 photos will be selected using reader feedback. Please enter a comment at the end of this post listing the number for each of your 10 favorite photos. If listing 10 photos is asking too much, then please list at least five photos, e.g., No. 5, 8, 14, 17, 21, etc. Thanks for sharing your selections, and thanks for following my photoblog!

No. 1

The following specimen was collected on 16 May 2016 (with permission from park staff) along the Potomac River at Riverbend Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. (This studio photograph, taken on 25 December 2016, hasn’t been published in a post.)

No. 2

The next specimen was collected on 07 July 2016 along the Potomac River in Fairfax County, Virginia USA. (This studio photograph was taken on 02 December 2016.)

An Eastern Amberwing dragonfly (Perithemis tenera) exuvia collected from the Potomac River, Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

07 JUL 2016 | Potomac River | Eastern Amberwing (exuvia, head-on)

No. 3

No. 4

A Shadow Darner dragonfly (Aeshna umbrosa) spotted at Mulligan Pond, Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a female heteromorph.

14 OCT 2016 | JMAWR | Shadow Darner (female heteromorph)

No. 5

No. 6

No. 7

No. 8

No. 9

No. 10

No. 11

No. 12

No. 13

No. 14

No. 15

No. 16

No. 17

No. 18

No. 19

No. 20

No. 21

No. 22

No. 23

No. 24

No. 25

No. 26

No. 27

A mating pair of Slender Spreadwing damselflies (Lestes rectangularis) spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This pair is "in heart."

24 JUN 2016 | HMP | Slender Spreadwing (mating pair, “in heart“)

No. 28

No. 29

No. 30

No. 31

No. 32

No. 33

Editor’s Note: The following location codes are used in some photo captions, shown above.

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Life-list additions in 2016

December 28, 2016

2016 was the “Year of the Clubtail dragonfly.” Unofficially, that is. Or maybe it only seems like I saw a lot more clubtail dragonflies than in past years, including four new species for my life-list of odonates. Not that I actually maintain a list — it’s more like a memory file in my brain.

There were three other non-odonate “firsts” this year, one of which was a long time coming! My life-list additions in 2016 are presented in reverse-chronological order.

Shadow Darner dragonfly

Shadow Darner dragonfly (female), posted on 18 October 2016.

Although I’ve seen many male Shadow Darners, this is the first female I photographed.

A Shadow Darner dragonfly (Aeshna umbrosa) spotted at Mulligan Pond, Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a female heteromorph.

14 OCT 2016 | JMAWR | Shadow Darner (female heteromorph)

Russet-tipped Clubtail dragonfly

Russet-tipped Clubtail dragonfly (male), posted on 26 September 2016.

I spent a lot of time unsuccessfully looking for Russet-tipped Clubtail dragonflies at Accotink Bay Wildlife Refuge. Soon after I surrendered in defeat, a Russet-tipped Clubtail found me. Imagine my surprise and delight when I spotted one at Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge (JMAWR). Whoa, didn’t see that one coming!

Clearwing Moths

Clearwing Moths (Genus Hemaris), published on 04 October 2016.

Dusky Dancer damselfly

Dusky Dancer damselflies (mating pair), published on 12 September 2016.

A mating pair of Dusky Dancer damselflies (Argia translata) spotted along Pope's Head Creek at Chapel Road Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This pair is "in tandem."

29 AUG 2016 | Chapel Road Park | Dusky Dancer (mating pair)

Black-shouldered Spinyleg dragonfly

Black-shouldered Spinyleg (male), published on 11 August 2016.

Eastern Ringtail dragonfly

Eastern Ringtail dragonflies (males), published on 13 August 2016.

Powdered Dancer damselfly

Powdered Dancer (males, female), published on 23 August 2016.

A Powdered Dancer damselfly (Argia moesta) spotted along the Potomac River at Riverbend Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male.

04 AUG 2016 | Riverbend Park | Powdered Dancer (male)

Swift Setwing dragonfly

Making new friends, published on 10 July 2016.

A Swift Setwing dragonfly (Dythemis velox) spotted at Mulligan Pond, Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male.

26 JUN 2016 | JMAWR | Swift Setwing (male)

Dragonhunter dragonfly

Dragonhunter dragonfly (female), published on 24 June 2016.

This is the first female Dragonhunter I photographed.

A Dragonhunter dragonfly (Hagenius brevistylus) spotted at Hidden Pond, Meadowood Recreation Area, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a female.

21 June 2016 | Dragonhunter dragonfly (female)

Calico Pennant dragonfly

Calico Pennant dragonflies (males), published on 20 June 2016.

A Calico Pennant dragonfly (Celithemis elisa) spotted at Painted Turtle Pond, Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Prince William County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male.

18 JUN 2016 | OBNWR | Calico Pennant (male)

Prince Baskettail dragonfly

Changing of the guard, published on 16 June 2016.

Although I’ve seen many Prince Baskettail dragonflies, this one is the first I photographed. Prince Baskettails are fliers, not perchers.

A Prince Baskettail dragonfly (Epitheca princeps) spotted at Mulligan Pond, Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male, shown in flight.

14 JUN 2016 | JMAWR | Prince Baskettail (male, in flight)

Slender Bluet damselfly

Slender Bluet damselflies (mating pair), published on 24 October 2016.

A mating pair of Slender Bluet damselflies (Enallagma traviatum) spotted at Mulligan Pond, Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This pair is "in heart."

14 JUN 2016 | JMAWR | Slender Bluet (mating pair, “in heart”)

Common Sanddragon dragonfly

Common Sanddragon dragonfly (emergent male), published on 08 June 2016.

Although this was the second emergent dragonfly I saw during 2016, this was the first time I was able to observe the entire metamorphosis from beginning to end.

A Common Sanddragon nymph/dragonfly (Progomphus obscurus) spotted along Dogue Creek at Wickford Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is an emergent male.

01 JUN 2016 | WP/DC | Common Sanddragon nymph/dragonfly

Cobra Clubtail dragonfly

Cobra Clubtail claspers, published on 19 May 2016.

A Cobra Clubtail dragonfly (Gomphus vastus) spotted at Riverbend Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male.

16 MAY 2016 | Riverbend Park | Cobra Clubtail (male)

Polyphemus Silkmoth

Polyphemus Silkmoth, published on 21 April 2016.

A Polyphemus Silkmoth (Antheraea polyphemus) was spotted along the Hike-Bike Trail at Huntley Meadows Park.

Spring Peeper frog

Spring Peeper, published on 01 May 2016.

Although I’ve heard Spring Peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) every spring for many years, this is the first one I saw.

Editor’s Note: The following location codes are used in some photo captions, shown above.

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

New discoveries in 2016

December 26, 2016

The more you know, the more you know how much you don’t know. Huh? There’s always more to discover/learn! My new discoveries in 2016 are presented in reverse-chronological order.

Eastern Amberwing dragonfly exuviae

Perithemis tenera exuviae, published on 06 December 2016.

An Eastern Amberwing dragonfly (Perithemis tenera) exuvia collected from the Potomac River, Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

07 JUL 2016 | Potomac River | Eastern Amberwing (exuvia, head-on)

I’m a man on a mission to demystify the art and science of odonate exuviae identification. The task is as challenging as I was led to believe, but with determination and persistence it is do-able.

The specimens featured in this post are the first odonate exuviae that I was able to identify to the species level. Although the specimens were collected in early July, they were identified in early December. New species will be added to my Odonate Exuviae page when their identity is confirmed.


Mulligan Pond at Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge (JMAWR) is a familiar location where several species, previously unknown to occur at the park, were discovered in 2016.

Shadow Darner dragonfly

Shadow Darner dragonfly (female), posted on 18 October 2016.

A Shadow Darner dragonfly (Aeshna umbrosa) spotted at Mulligan Pond, Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a female heteromorph.

14 OCT 2016 | JMAWR | Shadow Darner (female heteromorph)

Russet-tipped Clubtail dragonfly

Russet-tipped Clubtail dragonfly (male), posted on 26 September 2016.

Blue-faced Meadowhawk dragonfly

Another new species discovered at JMAWR, posted on 20 September 2016.

Lancet Clubtail dragonfly

Identifying clubtails by the calendar, posted on 30 June 2016.

A Lancet Clubtail dragonfly (Gomphus exilis) spotted at Mulligan Pond, Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male.

26 JUN 2016 | JMAWR | Lancet Clubtail (male)


In addition to my contributions to the odonate species list at Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge, Mike Powell discovered the first official record of Swift Setwing at JMAWR and in Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

More Big Bluet damselflies

December 24, 2016

More Big Bluet damselflies (Enallagma durum) were spotted in July 2016 during two photowalks along the Potomac River at Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve (DMWP).

More males

These individuals are males, as indicated by their blue and black coloration and by their terminal appendages.

Mating pair

The mating pair of Big Bluet damselflies shown in the following photograph is “in wheel,” in which the male uses “claspers” (terminal appendages) at the end of his abdomen to hold the female by her neck/thorax while they are joined at their abdomens. The male, blue and black in color, is on top; the female, green and black in color, is on the bottom.

The copulatory, or wheel, position is unique to the Odonata, as is the distant separation of the male’s genital opening and copulatory organs. Source Credit: Paulson, Dennis (2011-12-19). Dragonflies and Damselflies of the East (Princeton Field Guides) (Kindle Locations 377-378). Princeton University Press. Kindle Edition.

The wheel position is sometimes referred to as “in heart” when damselflies mate. In this case, the heart shape is deformed slightly.

A mating pair of Big Bluet damselflies (Enallagma durum) spotted at Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This pair is "in heart."

19 JUL 2016 | DMWP | Big Bluet (mating pair, “in tandem”)

The same pair is “in tandem” a while later: the male is on the right; the female is on the left. The male is engaged in “contact guarding,” in which the male and female fly “in tandem” to egg-laying sites. Contact guarding is used by some species of odonates to prevent aggressive males from hijacking the female.

A mating pair of Big Bluet damselflies (Enallagma durum) spotted at Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This pair is "in tandem."

19 JUL 2016 | DMWP | Big Bluet (mating pair, “in tandem”)

Look closely at the underside of the female’s abdomen, near the tip. Notice the ovipositor that she uses to insert eggs into vegetation (endophytic oviposition).

It’s helpful to take photos of mating pairs of damselflies, especially “in tandem,” since males and females of the same species can look quite different.

Sidebar: Scientific Classification of Damselflies

The following concise explanation of the scientific classification of damselflies is provided to help the reader understand where the genus Enallagma (American Bluets) fits into the bigger picture of the Order OdonataSuborder Zygoptera (Damselflies).

There are five families of damselflies in the United States of America, although only three families occur in the mid-Atlantic USA: Broad-winged damselflies; Narrow-winged damselflies (a.k.a., Pond Damselflies); and Spreadwing damselflies.

Family Calopterygidae is comprised of two genera.

Family Coenagrionidae is comprised of 14 genera. Three genera are common in Northern Virginia: Argia (Dancers); Enallagma (American Bluets); and Ischnura (Forktails).

Family Lestidae is comprised of two genera.

  • Archilestes (e.g., Great Spreadwing)
  • Lestes (e.g., Slender Spreadwing, Southern Spreadwing, Swamp Spreadwing)

There are relatively few genera of Broad-winged Damselflies and Spreadwing Damselflies. In contrast, there are many more genera and species of Narrow-winged Damselflies — more species, including many that look similar, makes this family the most challenging to learn!

Related Resources: Excellent digital scans created by Gayle and Jeanelle Strickland. Click on the button labeled “Download file” in order to view full-size version of the graphics.

  • Enallagma durum male #4 | male | JPG
  • Enallagma durum female #2 | female | JPG

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

CSI: Dyke Marsh

December 22, 2016

You are looking at the scene of a brutal crime committed on 20 July 2016 at Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve. Look closely at the full-size version of the following photo. Do you see any forensic evidence that indicates what probably happened just before the photo was taken?

The preceding photo shows a Big Bluet damselfly (Enallagma durum) that was spotted along the Potomac River at Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male, as indicated by his blue and black coloration and by his terminal appendages. Big Bluets prefer tidal bays and big rivers.

Related Resource: More Big Bluet damselflies is a blog post by Walter Sanford that features more photos of Big Bluet males as well as a mating pair.

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Great Spreadwing damselfly (male, grooming)

December 20, 2016

Great Spreadwing damselfly (Archilestes grandis) was spotted in the forest near a vernal pool at Huntley Meadows Park. This individual is the same male featured in my last blog post.

Before grooming

Look closely at the full-size version of the following photo. Notice the schmutz on the male damselfly’s abdomen, located near the right cercus of his terminal appendages.

11:09:41 a.m. EST

Grooming

A while later the male damselfly contorted himself into a position that looked like he was doing gymnastics. As it turns out, he was rubbing the tip of his abdomen against his thorax and legs in order to remove the schmutz.

11:31:09 a.m. EST

11:31:13 a.m. EST

11:31:18 a.m. EST

After grooming

Look closely at the full-size version of the following photo. Notice the schmutz on the male damselfly’s abdomen is gone. Soon afterward, the male flew in the direction of the vernal pool, presumably to look for female mates.

11:32:54 a.m. EST

Related Resource: Great Spreadwing damselflies (males, gymnasts) is a blog post by Walter Sanford that includes an embedded video showing similar grooming behaviors. The video features two segments: segment one shows the male damselfly grooming his legs; segment two shows the male grooming his wings by rubbing his abdomen against them.

Editor’s Note: If you check the EXIF for all five photos, then you will see the time stamp is one hour later than the times shown above. 06 November was the first time I used my camera since the end of Daylight Saving Time (at 2:00 a.m. the same day) — I forgot to reset the time in-camera!

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Great Spreadwing damselfly (male, eating)

December 18, 2016

Great Spreadwing damselfly (Archilestes grandis) was spotted in the forest near a vernal pool at Huntley Meadows Park. This individual is a male, as indicated by his deep blue eyes, familiar yellow racing stripe on the side of its thorax, bluish-white coloration on abdominal segments 9-10 (S9-10), and distinctive terminal appendages (claspers).

While I was sitting on my Coleman camp stool watching the male damselfly, suddenly he flew up and around head and landed near the same spot where he had been perching. I know from experience this type of behavior suggests the damselfly probably grabbed something to eat.

The following brief time-series of photos shows the damselfly eating an unknown species of winged insect.

11:19:52 a.m. EST

11:19:58 a.m. EST

11:20:14 a.m. EST

Editor’s Note: If you check the EXIF for all three photos, then you will see the time stamp is one hour later than the times shown above. 06 November was the first time I used my camera since the end of Daylight Saving Time (at 2:00 a.m. the same day) — I forgot to reset the time in-camera!

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Rambur’s Forktail damselfly (female)

December 16, 2016

A Rambur’s Forktail damselfly (Ischnura ramburii) was spotted at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is an immature heteromorph female, as indicated by the reddish-orange coloration of her thorax and abdominal segments one and two (S1-2), and reddish-orange postocular spots; her coloration will become duller as she matures. Andromorph females are colored like males.

A Rambur's Forktail damselfly (Ischnura ramburii) spotted at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is an immature heteromorph female.

03 OCT 2016 | Mason Neck West Park | Rambur’s Forktail (female)

This sighting was another reminder of one of many Walterisms: Don’t be dismissive! Huh? Male Rambur’s Forktail damselflies look similar to male Eastern Forktail damselflies (Ischnura verticalis). Eastern Forktails are relatively common, especially during spring and early-summer. Common. That’s the key word. When I noticed several male Rambur’s Forktails at the water retention pond I thought, “Oh, Eastern Forktails. Nothing to see here, folks. Move along.” Fortunately I spotted the immature heteromorph female and realized the error of my ways.

I’ll say it again: Don’t be dismissive — that kind of thinking can result in missed opportunities for wildlife photographers. I never expected to see Rambur’s Forktails at Mason Neck West Park and my preconceptions almost caused me to miss a golden opportunity to see a relatively uncommon damselfly.

Related Resources: Excellent digital scans created by Gayle and Jeanelle Strickland. Click on the button labeled “Download file” in order to view full-size version of the graphics.

  • Ischnura ramburii female #2 | heteromorph female | JPG
  • Ischnura ramburii female #8 | andromorph female | JPG
  • Ischnura ramburii male #2 | male | JPG

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Wandering Glider dragonfly (male)

December 14, 2016

Wandering Glider dragonfly (Pantala flavescens) was spotted at Mason Neck West Park (MNWP), Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male. Wandering Gliders do not display sexual dimorphism; terminal appendages may be used to differentiate females and males.

A Wandering Glider dragonfly (Pantala flavescens) spotted at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male.

04 OCT 2016 | Mason Neck West Park | Wandering Glider (male)

I like the subtle beauty of the coloration/pattern of markings along the abdomen of Wandering Gliders.

A Wandering Glider dragonfly (Pantala flavescens) spotted at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male.

04 OCT 2016 | Mason Neck West Park | Wandering Glider (male)

This guy was very skittish! I spooked him when I backed up for a slightly wider view of the scene — usually that happens the other way around.

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Tramea carolina exuvia

December 12, 2016

An exuvia from an unknown species of dragonfly was collected on 04 October 2016 at Mason Neck West Park (MNWP), Fairfax County, Virginia USA. A two-step process was used to identify the genus and species of the specimen.

Family

First, determine the family of the specimen. For reference, watch the excellent Vimeo video, Identifying dragonfly larva to family (8:06).

The exuviae has a mask-like labium (not flat) with evenly-toothed crenulations, indicating this individual is a member of Family Libellulidae (Skimmers). [See Photo No. 2.]

Genus and species

A dichotomous key was used to tentatively identify the exuvia as Carolina Saddlebags dragonfly (Tramea carolina), as indicated by the following morphological characteristics.

  • No dorsal hooks on any abdominal segments.
  • Lateral spines of abdominal segment nine (S9) are much longer than its mid-dorsal length. Lateral spines on segment eight (S8) are nearly as long as on segment nine (S9).[See Photo No. 3.]
  • Superior abdominal appendage (epiproct) is shorter than inferior abdominal appendages (paraprocts). [See Photo No. 3.]

Sincere thanks to Sue Gregoire, Kestrel Haven Migration Observatory, for verifying my preliminary observations and tentative identification!

No. 1

The specimen is approximately 2.4 cm (~0.9″) in length. Notice there are no dorsal hooks on any abdominal segments.

A dragonfly exuvia (Tramea carolina) collected at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 1 | Carolina Saddlebags (Tramea carolina) | exuvia (dorso-lateral)

The white filaments that extend from the split in the thorax (as shown in Photo No. 1-2, 4-6) are breathing tubes, artifacts of the unique respiratory system of dragonfly nymphs.

No. 2

The eyes are rounded and widely separated. Notice the mask-like labium (sometimes referred to as “spoon-shaped”) with evenly-toothed crenulations along the margins between two lateral lobes.

A dragonfly exuvia (Tramea carolina) collected at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 2 | Carolina Saddlebags (Tramea carolina) | exuvia (face-head)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

No. 3

A vertical white line marks the mid-dorsal length of abdominal segment nine (S9), as shown in the following annotated image; the vertical black line labeled “mid-dorsal length” is the same length as the white line. Notice the lateral spines of abdominal segment nine (S9) are much longer than its mid-dorsal length.

A dragonfly exuvia (Tramea carolina) collected at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 3 | Carolina Saddlebags (Tramea carolina) | exuvia (anal pyramid)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

One of the keys to identifying skimmer dragonflies to the species level is to carefully examine the anal pyramid (S10), including the cerci (sing. cercus), epiproct, and paraprocts. Notice the epiproct is shorter than the paraprocts.

There is a lot of “seaweed” (aquatic vegetation) clinging to the exuvia, especially noticeable at the posterior end. Some collectors like to clean their specimens; I prefer to photograph them “as is.”

More photos of the exuvia are shown below.

No. 4

A dragonfly exuvia (Tramea carolina) collected at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 4 | Carolina Saddlebags (Tramea carolina) | exuvia (dorsal)

No. 5

A dragonfly exuvia (Tramea carolina) collected at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 5 | Carolina Saddlebags (Tramea carolina) | exuvia (face-head)

No. 6

A dragonfly exuvia (Tramea carolina) collected at Mason Neck West Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

No. 6 | Carolina Saddlebags (Tramea carolina) | exuvia (anal pyramid)

Tech Tips:

The following equipment was used to shoot the preceding photographs:

Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 was used to annotate selected images.

Related Resources:

dichotomous key: a key for the identification of organisms based on a series of choices between alternative characters. Source Credit: Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Assuming the convention of labeling the two branches of each dichotomy as “a” and “b”, e.g. 1a, 1b, etc., a list of branches in the decision tree that I used to identify the genus of the dragonfly exuviae is as follows: 1b; 4b; 5b; 10a; 11b; 12b Tramea. A supplemental key featuring one dichotomy was used to identify the species: 1a carolina BINGO!

In long form, the decision tree is as follows:

p. 36, Key to the Genera of the Family Libellulidae
1b – Eyes lower, more broadly rounded and more lateral in position; abdomen usually ending more bluntly. [Go to] 4
4b – These appendages [inferior abdominal appendages (paraprocts)] straight or nearly so. [Go to] 5
5b – No dorsal hooks on any abdominal segments. [Go to] 10
10a – Lateral spines of segment 9 much longer than its mid-dorsal length. [Go to] 11
11b – Lateral spines on 8 nearly as long as on 9. [Go to] 12
12b – Superior abdominal appendage (epiproct) shorter than inferiors [inferior abdominal appendages (paraprocts)]. Tramea BINGO!

p. 41, Key to the species of the genus Tramea
1a – Lateral spines of segment 8 directed straight to rearward; paraprocts longer than epiproct; two rows of spinules on upper surface of epiproct. carolina BINGO!

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.


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