Posts Tagged ‘Common Green Darner dragonfly’

Should I stay or should I go?

October 7, 2017

Two Common Green Darner dragonflies (Anax junius) were observed flying back-and-forth over a field alongside a vernal pool at a remote location in Huntley Meadows Park (HMP), Fairfax County, Virginia USA — typical feeding behavior for Common Green Darners. Sometimes they would land briefly, perching in shady hidey-holes in the thick vegetation covering the ground. I followed one of the two to a couple of perches.

This individual was very skittish! I was able to shoot one photo at the first perch…

03 OCT 2017 | HMP | Common Green Darner (female)

…and another photo at the last perch. The dragonfly flew toward the tree canopy when I tried to move a step closer.

03 OCT 2017 | HMP | Common Green Darner (female)

It’s relatively easy to identify this type of dragonfly to the species level.

The easiest field mark for identification of a Common Green Darner is that “bull’s eye” on the back of the head. No other [odonate] has it. Source Credit: John Gregoire, Kestrel Haven Wildlife Sanctuary.

On the other hand, it can be more challenging to identify the gender.

Several field markers can be used to identify the gender of this dragonfly. The cerci (sing. cercus) of female Common Green Darners look like almonds, both in color and shape. Two more field markers verify this specimen is female.

Note the brown stripe extending onto abdominal segment 2. Segment 2 [S2] is typically all pale on males. Also [viewing the second photo at full resolution and zooming in on the head] the rear margin of the occiput is not straight. Females have blunt dark colored “teeth” back there which makes the margin look wavy. Source Credit: Ed Lam, author and illustrator of Damselflies of the Northeast, Northeast Odonata Facebook group.

Common Green Darner is one of at least five major species of dragonflies known to be migratory in North America. It’s possible the two Common Green Darners that I observed stopped at Huntley Meadows Park in order to “refuel” before continuing their southward migration.

Related Resources

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Advertisements

Exuviart

August 22, 2017

Regular readers of my blog remember when I coined the term “Odonart” and created an “Odonart Portfolio.”

I just coined a new term: “Exuviart.” Exuviart is a concatenation of two words: exuvia; and art. The following photographs are the first additions to the Exuviart wing of my Odonart Portfolio.


Unpublished Photo

An Eastern Amberwing dragonfly (Perithemis tenera) exuvia, from the Family Libellulidae (Skimmers), was collected from the Potomac River in Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

Whenever possible, I like to collect exuviae along with some of the vegetation that was the site for emergence. The vegetation helps to show scale. In this case, the small specimen is approximately 1.4 cm (~0.6″) in length and approximately 0.6 cm (~0.2″) in maximum width. I like the way the desiccated leaf retained its color and gained a velvety texture.

Tech Tips

The following equipment was used to shoot the preceding photograph: Canon EOS 5D Mark II DSLR; Canon EF100mm f/2.8 Macro lens plus Raynox DCR-250 close-up filter; Canon 580EX II Speedlite; Canon 580EX Speedlite; and a coiled six-foot Vello Off-Camera TTL Flash Cord for Canon Cameras. The specimen was staged on a piece of white plastic (12″ square, matte finish).


Published Photos

A Common Green Darner dragonfly (Anax junius) exuvia, from the Family Aeshnidae (Darners), was collected at Hidden Pond, Meadowood Recreation Area (MRA), Fairfax County, Virginia USA.

Tech Tips

The following equipment was used to shoot the preceding photograph: Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Canon EF100mm f/2.8L Macro lens (set for manual focus); Canon 580EX II external flash, off-camera, in manual mode; Canon 580EX external flash, off-camera, in manual mode; and a Yongnuo YN-622C-TX E-TTL II Wireless Flash Controller for Canon plus a two-pack of Yongnuo YN-622C II E-TTL Wireless Flash Transceivers for Canon.


A Cobra Clubtail dragonfly (Gomphurus vastus) exuvia, from the Family Gomphidae (Clubtails), was collected at Riverbend Park with permission from park staff.

Tech Tips

The following equipment was used to shoot the preceding photograph: Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Canon EF100mm f/2.8L Macro lens (set for manual focus) plus a Kenko 20mm macro automatic extension tube and Raynox DCR-250 close-up filter; Canon 580EX II external flash, off-camera, in manual mode; Canon 580EX external flash, off-camera, in manual mode; and a Yongnuo YN-622C-TX E-TTL II Wireless Flash Controller for Canon plus a two-pack of Yongnuo YN-622C II E-TTL Wireless Flash Transceivers for Canon.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Almost perfect

March 17, 2017

Sometimes I get so focused on the subject of a photo that I don’t see the bigger picture. Although I recognize the problem, I can’t think of a simple solution.

04 OCT 2016 | Huntley Meadows Park | predators and prey

The preceding photo shows a Black and Yellow Argiope (Argiope aurantia) spider spotted at Huntley Meadows Park; a Common Green Darner dragonfly (Anax junius) is trapped in the spider web. I was so focused on getting a shot of the spider in a good position relative to the dragonfly that I never noticed the Chinese Mantid (Tenodera sinensis sinensis) on the right side of the photo. That is, until I returned home.

Notice that I clipped one of the mantid’s legs on the left side of its body (right edge of the photo). That’s the sort of thing that drives me crazy! If I had seen the mantid then I would have recomposed the shot in order to capture all three insects completely. Oh well, another hard lesson learned about wildlife photography.

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Anax junius exuvia

January 14, 2017

A dragonfly exuvia from the Family Aeshnidae (Darners) was collected on 21 June 2016 at Hidden Pond, Meadowood Recreation Area, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This specimen is an exuvia from a Common Green Darner dragonfly (Anax junius).

A two-step process was used to identify the genus and species of the specimen.

  1. Determine the family.
  2. Determine the genus and species.

Step 1. Family

First, determine the family of the specimen. For reference, watch the excellent Vimeo video, Identifying dragonfly larva to family (8:06). Here’s the decision tree I used to identify the exuvia as a member of the Family Aeshnidae (Darners).

  • The specimen has a flat labium that doesn’t cover the face (not mask-like), as shown in Photo No. 1-4.
  • Antennae are thin and thread-like (not club-like, as in Gomphidae larvae), as shown in Photo No. 4.
  • Eyes are large relative to the size of the head, as shown in Photo No. 5.

Step 2. Genus and species

As shown in Photo No. 1, lateral spines along abdominal segments seven, eight, and nine (S7-9) indicate the genus is Anax.

A dragonfly exuvia from the Family Aeshnidae (Darners), collected at Hidden Pond, Meadowood Recreation Area, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is Anax junius.

No. 1 | Common Green Darner (Anax junius) | exuvia (dorsal-lateral)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

At this point, you know the species could be either anax (Common Green Darner dragonfly) or longipes (Comet Darner dragonfly). The species is determined by the shape of the palpal lobes (see Photo No. 3) and the length of the specimen (see Photo No. 2).

A dragonfly exuvia from the Family Aeshnidae (Darners), collected at Hidden Pond, Meadowood Recreation Area, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is Anax junius.

No. 2 | Common Green Darner (Anax junius) | exuvia (lateral)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

The labium, also known as the mentum, is a two-segment hinged “jaw” that is used to grab food: the prementum is the segment of the labium closer to the mouth; the postmentum is the segment closer to the base of the head.

The specimen is ~4.7 cm (~1.9 in) in length, not counting the bend in the body.

A dragonfly exuvia from the Family Aeshnidae (Darners), collected at Hidden Pond, Meadowood Recreation Area, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is Anax junius.

No. 3 | Common Green Darner (Anax junius) | exuvia (labium, ventral)

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

The rounded shape of the palpal lobes (see Photo No. 3, above) plus the length of the specimen (see Photo No. 2) indicate the species is juniusAnax junius is one of the more common species of Aeshnidae found in Northern Virginia.

A dragonfly exuvia from the Family Aeshnidae (Darners), collected at Hidden Pond, Meadowood Recreation Area, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is Anax junius.

No. 4 | Common Green Darner (Anax junius) | exuvia (face-head)

Notice the antennae are thin and thread-like, as shown in the preceding photo. If you are an aquatic animal, this is a face you don’t want to see up-close and personally!

A dragonfly exuvia from the Family Aeshnidae (Darners), collected at Hidden Pond, Meadowood Recreation Area, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is Anax junius.

No. 5 | Common Green Darner (Anax junius) | exuvia (head, dorsal)

The eyes are large relative to the size of the head.

Tech Tips:

The following equipment was used to shoot all of the preceding photographs: Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera, in manual mode; Canon EF100mm f/2.8L Macro lens (set for manual focus); Canon 580EX II external flash, off-camera, in manual mode; Canon 580EX external flash, off-camera, in manual mode; and a Yongnuo YN-622C-TX E-TTL II Wireless Flash Controller for Canon plus a two-pack of Yongnuo YN-622C II E-TTL Wireless Flash Transceivers for Canon. A Raynox DCR-250 close-up filter was used for Photo No. 3-5.

Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 was used to annotate selected images.

The first test shot for this exuvia was photographed using my Canon EF100mm f/2.8L Macro lens plus a Kenko 20mm macro automatic extension tube. As you can see in the following photo, the subject barely fit within the frame. Although the composition isn’t ideal, the resulting photo is dramatic nonetheless! The 20mm extension tube wasn’t used for the rest of the photo set.

A dragonfly exuvia from the Family Aeshnidae (Darners), collected at Hidden Pond, Meadowood Recreation Area, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is Anax junius.

No. 6 | Common Green Darner (Anax junius) | exuvia (lateral)

The following photograph of the exuvia was taken in-situ along the shoreline of Hidden Pond using a Panasonic DMC-FZ150 superzoom bridge camera and Canon 580EX Speedlite, my go-to kit for photowalking.

A dragonfly exuvia spotted at Hidden Pond, Meadowood Recreation Area, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of Family Aeshnidae.

No. 7 | 21 JUN 2016 | MRA | Anax junius exuvia (in-situ)

Related Resources:

dichotomous key: a key for the identification of organisms based on a series of choices between alternative characters. Source Credit: Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

In long form, the decision tree is as follows (assuming the convention of labeling the two branches of each dichotomy as “a” and “b”, e.g. 1a, 1b, etc.):

p. 21, Key to the genera of the Family Aeshnidae
1b – Hind angles of head rounded … . (5)
5a – Lateral spines on abdominal segments 7 to 9 only. (6)
6b – Antenna about half as long as this distance [from the base of the antennae to the rear of head]. (Anax)

p. 22, Key to the species of the genus Anax
1a – Lateral lobes of labium tapering to a hooked point; total length about 40 mm. (junius) [Note: The total length of longipes is about 55 mm.]

Copyright © 2017 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

What’s my gender?

November 1, 2016

The following Common Green Darner dragonfly (Anax junius) was spotted near a vernal pool in a remote location at Huntley Meadows Park.

Can you identify its gender? You may want to refer to Sexing Common Green Darner dragonflies, my last blog post, before choosing an answer.

Whatever its gender, this individual is what I call a “freshie,” that is, an odonate that emerged recently but may not fit the strict definition of “teneral.” You could call the dragonfly either “post-teneral” or “immature” but it’s definitely not mature, as indicated by the light tan eye color.

Editor’s Note: The dark stripe extending into S2 is the most obvious field marker indicating this dragonfly is female.

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Sexing Common Green Darner dragonflies

October 30, 2016

Several field markers can be used to identify the gender of female and male Common Green Darner dragonflies (Anax junius).

Female

The following individual, spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, is a female. Female dragonflies have a pair of cerci (superior appendages) that have little or no function. The cerci (sing. cercus) of female Common Green Darners look like almonds, both in color and shape.

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Two more field markers verify this specimen is female.

Note the brown stripe extending onto abdominal segment 2. Segment 2 [S2] is typically all pale on males. Also viewing at full resolution, the rear margin of the occiput is not straight. Females have blunt dark colored “teeth” back there which makes the margin look wavy. Source Credit: Ed Lam, author and illustrator of Damselflies of the Northeast, Northeast Odonata Facebook group.

Male

Male dragonflies have three terminal appendages, collectively called “claspers,” that are used to grab and hold female dragonflies during mating: an upper pair of cerci (“superior appendages”); and a lower unpaired epiproct (“inferior appendage”).

The cerci of male Common Green Darners are slightly darker in color and somewhat thicker and more rounded than the cerci of females of the same species. There are points at the tips of the two male cerci, as shown clearly in the full-size version of the following photo; female cerci are pointless, both literally and figuratively.

Male Common Green Darners have a very short epiproct that is used to grip the “teeth” on the back of head of females of the same species.

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

The individual in the preceding image is an immature male, as indicated by the purple coloration on his abdomen. As a mature male, his abdomen will be partially covered by blue pruinescence like the one shown below.

Related Resources: Digital Dragonflies, presenting high-resolution digital scans of living dragonflies.

  • Genus Anax | Anax junius | Common Green Darner | female | top view
  • Genus Anax | Anax junius | Common Green Darner | female | side view
  • Genus Anax | Anax junius | Common Green Darner | male | top view
  • Genus Anax | Anax junius | Common Green Darner | male | side view

Compare and contrast the cerci of female and male Common Green Darners by viewing the full-size versions of the preceding top views for both sexes and Ed Lam’s excellent composite image, shown below.

ed-lam_cgd_male-vs-female

Composite image used with permission from Ed Lam.

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Headfirst

October 22, 2016

Common Green Darner dragonfly (Anax junius) landed a few feet to my left as I was looking for Russet-tipped Clubtail dragonflies during a photowalk around Mulligan Pond at Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge (JMAWR).

Almost immediately, I realized the Common Green Darner was eating a smaller female Autumn Meadowhawk dragonfly (Sympetrum vicinum).

A Common Green Darner dragonfly (Anax junius) spotted at Mulligan Pond, Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male, eating a female Autumn Meadowhawk dragonfly (Sympetrum vicinum).

16 OCT 2016 | JMAWR | Common Green Darner (male, eating prey)

Notice the Common Green Darner is eating the Autumn Meadowhawk headfirst, the fastest way for the predator to immobilize its prey.

A Common Green Darner dragonfly (Anax junius) spotted at Mulligan Pond, Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male, eating a female Autumn Meadowhawk dragonfly (Sympetrum vicinum).

16 OCT 2016 | JMAWR | Common Green Darner (male, eating prey)

The Common Green Darner is an immature- to young male, as indicated by his coloration and terminal appendages. As a mature male, his abdomen will be partially covered by blue pruinescence.

A Common Green Darner dragonfly (Anax junius) spotted at Mulligan Pond, Jackson Miles Abbott Wetland Refuge, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is a male, eating a female Autumn Meadowhawk dragonfly (Sympetrum vicinum).

16 OCT 2016 | JMAWR | Common Green Darner (male, eating prey)

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Aeshnidae exuvia

May 15, 2016

An odonate exuvia was spotted on 14 August 2012 along the boardwalk in the central wetland area at Huntley Meadows Park. The specimen was broken into three pieces when I found it: head and thorax; wing pads; and abdomen.

This individual is a member of the Family Aeshnidae (Darners). Here’s the decision tree I used to tentatively identify the exuvia as a member of the Darner Family.

  • The specimen has a flat labium that doesn’t cover the face (not mask-like).
  • Antennae are thin and thread-like (not club-like, as in Gomphidae).

Photo Set 1

Notice the labium is flat and isn’t mask-like, that is, doesn’t cover the face of the larva/exuvia.

An odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of the Aeshnidae Family.

Head and thorax (lateral view).

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Also notice the antennae are thin and thread-like, as shown in the following annotated image.

An odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of the Aeshnidae Family.

Head and thorax (dorsal side).

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

The shape of the mentum and prementum (especially the rounded palpal blades) indicates this specimen is a Common Green Darner dragonfly (Anax junius), one of the more common species of Aeshnidae found at Huntley Meadows Park.

An odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of the Aeshnidae Family.

Head and thorax (ventral side).

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Photo Set 2

The next photo shows the wing pads as well as part of abdominal segment one (S1). All odonates have a 10-segmented abdomen. The anterior side is toward the bottom of the photo; posterior toward the top.

An odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of the Aeshnidae Family.

Wing pads (dorsal view).

Abdominal segments two through 10 (S2-10) are shown in the following photo.

An odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of the Aeshnidae Family.

Abdomen (dorsal view).

Lateral spines along abdominal segments seven, eight, and nine (S7-9) verifies the genus and species as Anax junius. Notice the faint feature on segment nine (S9), highlighted by a white circle. This is a “rudimentary ovipositor,” according to SueandJohn KestrelHaven, active members of the “Northeast Odonata” Facebook group. An ovipositor is used for egg-laying by all adult damselflies and some species of adult dragonflies: females have this feature; males do not.

An odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of the Aeshnidae Family.

Abdomen (ventral view).

(See a full-size version of the original photo, without annotation.)

Tech Tips:

The following equipment was used to shoot the preceding photographs:

Adobe Photoshop CC 2015 was used to annotate selected images.

The following photo reveals a behind the scenes look at my low-tech solution for staging specimen parts: a plastic toothpick (tan) from a Swiss Army knife held by a small plastic clothespin (green); both parts were held by an alligator clip (silver) mounted on a short, flexible arm.

An odonate exuviae spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is probably a member of the Aeshnidae Family.

All specimens were staged in front of the same opaque white plastic background. Hard to believe, huh? I own an 18% gray scale card; at some point, I should start using it to adjust the white balance in my macro photos!

Related Resources:

Copyright © 2016 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Fatal injuries?

October 2, 2015

After several years of dragonfly hunting, I’ve seen two dragonflies with three wings rather than four: in one case, I can only speculate how the injury occurred; in the other case, I witnessed the injury firsthand.

Can dragonflies survive with three wings? The answer is yes and no: if they can fly, they can survive; if they can’t fly, they can’t survive.

If they can’t fly, they’ll starve because they only eat prey they catch while flying. Source Credit: 14 Fun Facts About Dragonflies, by Sarah Zielinski, Smithsonian.com.

On the same day I discovered a male Roseate Skimmer dragonfly (Orthemis ferruginea) at Huntley Meadows Park, I heard a loud splash in a pool of water behind me. I turned around quickly and noticed a dragonfly struggling to free itself from the surface of the water. After a few seconds, the dragonfly escaped from the water and flew briefly before landing on the ground near the place where I was standing. I was able to shoot four photos before the dragonlfy flew away.

Turns out that individual was an old, injured female Great Blue Skimmer dragonfly (Libellula vibrans). One of her wings was broken near its base; I don’t know how the injury occurred. She was able to fly, but flight was labored at best.

A Great Blue Skimmer dragonfly (Libellula vibrans) spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual is an old, injured female.

23 SEP 2015 | HMP | Great Blue Skimmer (old female, injured)

Two years earlier, I was photographing dragonflies along the boardwalk in the central wetland area. One male Great Blue Skimmer dragonfly in particular caught my attention: he repeatedly engaged one or more Common Green Darner dragonflies (Anax junius) in brief aerial dogfights. I vividly remember thinking, “Dude, you must have a death wish — those darners can be vicious predators!” Almost immediately afterward, a darner sheared off one of the male Great Blue Skimmer’s wings just like a buzzsaw and looped around for the kill shot. The skimmer dove for cover in vegetation overhanging the boardwalk (shown below) and his life was spared. I shot one poor-quality photo of the injured male Great Blue Skimmer; he flew away when I tried to move closer.

An injured dragonfly, possibly a male Great Blue Skimmer (Libellula vibrans), spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This individual lost a wing during a fight with a male Common Green Darner dragonfly (Anax junius).

04 SEP 2013 | HMP | Great Blue Skimmer (male, injured)

Did the female Great Blue Skimmer meet the same fate as the male? Who knows? I know there were lots of Common Green Darners hawking invisible airborne insects over a meadow near the location where I spotted the injured female. And I know Common Green Darners feed voraciously in order to store energy for migration. Perhaps both skimmers were attacked as a potential food source.

Copyright © 2015 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.

Full Circle

August 21, 2015

A mating pair of Common Green Darners (Anax junius) was spotted at a bioswale near the head-end of the Hike-Bike Trail at Huntley Meadows Park (HMP).

The bioswale was designed to filter the runoff which comes from the parking lot, removing heavy metals, salt, sand, etc. from the runoff before conveyance to Dogue Creek. It is supposed to slowly filter the rain water in 48-72 hours, to clean and purify the water before entering the creek. Source Credit: David M. Lawlor, Natural Resource Manager, HMP.

The pair is in tandem (a form of guarding behavior): the male (upper-right) guides the female (lower-left) to places where she can lay eggs in vegetation (endophytic oviposition).

A mating pair of Common Green Darner dragonflies (Anax junius) spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This pair is in tandem as the female lays eggs by the process of oviposition.

05 AUG 2015 | HMP | Common Green Darner (mating pair, in tandem)

Did you notice the odonate exuvia located on the same reed as the Common Green Darners? Although it’s usually impossible to identify an exuvia from a photograph like the one shown above, I consulted the experts of the Northeast Odonata Facebook group.

I can’t identify the exuvia to species, but I’m pretty confident about the family — Libellulidae, a skimmer. Possibly Blue Dasher, but I’m mostly guessing there. Source Credit: Christopher E. Hill, Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Coastal Carolina University.

A mating pair of Common Green Darner dragonflies (Anax junius) spotted at Huntley Meadows Park, Fairfax County, Virginia USA. This pair is in tandem as the female lays eggs by the process of oviposition.

05 AUG 2015 | HMP | Common Green Darner (mating pair, in tandem)

Eggs may hatch after a few days, or embryonic development may take a month or more. In some species, the eggs overwinter and hatch the following spring. Each egg hatches into a very tiny prolarva that looks like a primitive insect form, quite different from the larva that will succeed it. Source Credit: Paulson, Dennis (2011-12-19). Dragonflies and Damselflies of the East (Princeton Field Guides) (Kindle Locations 407-409). Princeton University Press. Kindle Edition.

As odonate larvae grow and outgrow their skin, they molt, on average 12 times. The duration of this stage of life can vary from a month to several years, depending upon both species and climate. The last molt, called “emergence,” is the metamorphosis from larva to adult; the “cast skin” that is left behind is an exuvia (pl. exuviae).

The juxtaposition of the exuvia and mating pair in the first photo is a metaphor for the circle of life, come full circle: eggs; prolarvae; larvae; emergence/adult males and females; mating pairs; males guide females to egg-laying sites.

Related Resources:

Copyright © 2015 Walter Sanford. All rights reserved.


%d bloggers like this: